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Qaḍā' Prayer (Arabic: صلاة القَضاء) or Missed Prayer (opposite to ada' prayer or punctual prayer) is any prayer which is performed outside of its proper time. Since there are wajib (obligatory) and mustahab (recommended) prayers, qada' prayers are also divided into wajib and mustahab. The qada' of prayers which are missed by a menstruating woman should not be performed. If someone dies while he was obliged to perform certain qada' prayers, someone else can perform them on his behalf.
A qada' prayer is one which is not performed in its proper time. It is supposed to recover a missed or invalidly performed prayer.
Times of Ada' Prayers
A prayer counts as ada' even if one rak'a of it is performed in time.
Proper times of prayers:
- Noon prayer: from the noon adhan to a short time before the evening adhan (according to the view of some fuqaha) or the sunset (according to the view of others) such that there is enough time for the performance of the afternoon prayer,
- Afternoon prayer: from the noon prayer to the evening adhan or the sunset (as mentioned above),
- Evening prayer: from the evening adhan to a short time before the shari'a midnight (such that there is enough time for the performance of the 'isha' Prayer,
- 'Isha' Prayer: from the evening Prayer to the shari'a midnight.
There are two types of qada' prayers:
- Qada' of obligatory prayers, such as the obligatory daily prayers or other prayers such as the ayat prayer and tawaf prayer,
- Qada' of mustahab prayers.
In the following cases, a missed obligatory prayer does not need to be performed as qada':
- Prayers missed by menstruating women or women with post-natal bleeding (nifas),
- Prayers missed by a person who unwillingly fell unconscious,
- If an unbeliever converts to Islam, he or she does not need to perform prayers he missed before his conversion.
Qada' of the Missed Prayers of One's Parents
The qada' of a father's missed prayers is obligatory for his oldest son. Some fuqaha' (jurisprudents) believe that the qada' of a mother's missed prayers is also obligatory for the oldest son.
Some Rulings of the Qada' Prayer
- If a person has missed several prayers without knowing their exact number, then he or she can perform the lower number.
- There is no specific time for qada' prayers. Thus, they can be performed on any occasion.
- If a person finds that the prayer he performed within the time was not valid, then he or she must perform its qada'.
- The qada' of prayers must be performed in the way they were missed. For example, if a shortened prayer is missed, then one must perform its qada' as shortened, even after the travel.
- The qada' of a person's prayer must be performed by him or her. But if they die, then another person can perform it on their behalf.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from نماز قضا in Farsi Wikishia.