Qada' prayer

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Qaḍā' Prayer (Arabic: صلاة القَضاء) or Missed Prayer (opposite to ada' prayer or punctual prayer) is any prayer which is performed outside of its proper time. Since there are wajib (obligatory) and mustahab (recommended) prayers, qada' prayers are also divided into wajib and mustahab. The qada' of prayers which are missed by a menstruating woman should not be performed. If someone dies while he was obliged to perform certain qada' prayers, someone else can perform them on his behalf.

Definition

A qada' prayer is one which is not performed in its proper time. It is supposed to recover a missed or invalidly performed prayer.

Times of Prayers

A prayer counts as ada' even if one rak'a of it is performed in time.

Proper times of prayers:

Types

There are two types of qada' prayers:

In the following cases, a missed obligatory prayer does not need to be performed as qada':

  • Prayers missed by menstruating women or women with post-natal bleeding (nifas),
  • Prayers missed by a person who unwillingly fell unconscious,
  • If an unbeliever converts to Islam, he or she does not need to perform prayers he missed before his conversion.

Missed Prayers of One's Parents

The qada' of a father's missed prayers is obligatory for his oldest son. Some faqihs (jurisprudents) believe that the qada' of a mother's missed prayers is also obligatory for the oldest son.

Some Rulings

  • If a person has missed several prayers without knowing their exact number, then he or she can perform the lower number.
  • There is no specific time for qada' prayers. Thus, they can be performed on any occasion.
  • If a person finds that the prayer he performed within the time was not valid, then he or she must perform its qada'.
  • The qada' of prayers must be performed in the way they were missed. For example, if a shortened prayer is missed, then one must perform its qada' as shortened, even after the travel.
  • The qada' of a person's prayer must be performed by him or her. But if they die, then another person can perform it on their behalf.

References

  • The material for this article is mainly taken from نماز قضا in Farsi Wikishia.