Al-Hasan b. Muhammad al-Tusi
|Well-Known As||Abu 'Ali al-Tusi|
|Well-Known Relatives||Al-Shaykh al-Tusi (father)|
|Professors||Al-Shaykh al-Tusi, Sallar al-Daylami, ...|
|Students||Abu l-Futuh al-Razi, Al-Fadl b. al-Hasan al-Tabrisi, ...|
|Permission for Hadith|
|Permission for Hadith|
|'Imad al-Din al-Tabari|
|Works||Al-Anwar, Al-Murshid ila l-sabil al-muta'abbid|
Al-Ḥasan b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Ṭusī (Arabic: الحسن بن محمد بن حسن الطوسي) (d. after 511/1117), also known as Abū ʿAlī al-Ṭusī (ابو علي الطوسي) or al-Mufīd al-Thānī (المفید الثاني), the son of al-Shaykh al-Tusi, is a faqih, muhaddith (narrator) and one of the most important mediators in Shi'a chains of transmitters.
The exact time of his birth and demise is unknown. However, considering that he received his permission for hadith transmission (ijazat al-riwaya) from his father, al-Shaykh al-Tusi, about 455/1063; it is guessed that he was born in the middle of the first half of the 5th/11th century. The last information about him is from 511/1117-18, in which 'Imad al-Din al-Tabari received the permission for hadith transmission from him in Najaf. Most likely, he was not alive in 520/1126-27 because Hibat Allah b. Nama', who was studying in Najaf in that year, narrated indirectly (through a mediator) from him and brought the phrase "God be pleased with him" (which imply that he was not alive then) after his name. In addition, according to his historical category in 'ilm al-rijal, the report of al-Safadi and Ibn Shakir al-Kutubi who said that he passed away about 540 seems incorrect.
Abu Ali was raised in a well-known household. He studied under his father, al-Shaykh al-Tusi, and reached such a high level in Islamic studies that he was given the sobriquet al-Mufid al-Thani (al-Shaykh al-Mufid the second). Most biographers described him as pious, ascetic, knowledgeable and of course reliable (al-Thiqa).
Other than his father, Abu Ali studied under various Shi'a and non-Shi'a scholars such as: Abu Ya'la Sallar al-Daylami, Ibn al-Saqqal, Abu Tayyib al-Tabari, al-Khallal and al-Tanukhi.
His narration from his father and his mediation in almost all of Shi'a chains of transmitters (sanads) gives him a very important status in Shi'a rijal. Statically, among the three main narrators (Abu l-Samsam Dhu l-Fiqar b. Ma'bid, Abu l-Wafa' 'Abd al-Jabbar b. 'Abd Allah al-Razi and Abu Ali) form al-Shaykh al-Tusi, Abu Ali is the one whose name is mentioned in most of the chains of transmitters (Sanads).
It is noteworthy that al-Shaykh al-Tusi is considered the most important mediator in Shi'a chains of transmitters who had various paths (tariqs) to early sources and narrators, and he trusted to his son, Abu Ali, to narrate from all of them.
Likewise, by allowing his students to narrate from these paths, Abu Ali played an irreplaceable role in Shi'a chains of transmitters. This shows the high status of Abu Ali in connecting the early Shi'a heritage to later scholars.
Abu Ali is one of the most important promoters of the jurisprudential school of al-Shaykh al-Tusi. His commentary on al-Nihaya, written by his father, is strong evidence for that. However, he had his own viewpoints and opinions in fiqh, for instance the compulsion of isti'adha (saying "I seek protection of God against outcast Satan") before reciting the Qur'an (whether in prayer or otherwise) is attributed to him.
Abu Ali had authored some works, however, none of them are available now.
- Al-Anwar: Afandi has mentioned this book in the epilogue of Bihar al-anwar.
- Al-Murshid ila l-sabil al-muta'abbid: Ibn Shahrashub introduced this book in Ma'alim al-'ulama.
Aqa Buzurg Tihrani believes what al-Hurr al-'Amili has mentioned as Abu Ali's commentary on al-Nihaya is this book. Apparently, Abu Ali's commentary on al-Nihaya had survived to later centuries as al-Shahid al-Awwal has cited it in his book.
- Some scholars mentioned al-Amali of al-Shaykh al-Tusi as one of Abu Ali's works. However, it seems that Abu Ali was only the narrator of the book and it was a collection of hadith dictated by his father.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from حسن بن محمد طوسی in Farsi WikiShia.