Al-Hasan b. Musa al-Khashshab

Without priority, Quality: c
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Companion of Imam (a)
Al-Hasan b. Musa al-Khashshab
Full Name Al-Hasan b. Musa al-Khashshab
Companion of Imam al-Hasan al-'Askari (a)
Teknonym Abu Muhammad
Birth c. second half of 2nd/8th century
Professors Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abi Nasr al-Bazanti, 'Ali b. Asbat etc.
Students Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Saffar, Sa'd b. 'Abd Allah al-Ash'ari al-Qummi etc.
Works Al-Radd 'ala l-Waqifa (rejection of Waqifis), al-Nawadir, al-Hajj (concerning hajj) and al-Anbiya’ (the propehts)

Al-Ḥasan b. Mūsā al-Khashshāb (Arabic: الحسن بن موسی الخشّاب) was a Shiite transmitter of hadiths in the 2nd/8th and 3rd/9th centuries. Although he counts as a companion of Imam al-Hasan al-'Askari (a), he never transmitted a hadith directly from him. Most of his hadiths are concerned with fiqh and are indirectly transmitted from Imam al-Sadiq (a).

Characteristics

His kunya was Abu Muhammad. In chains of narrations of hadiths, he is often mentioned as Hasan b. Musa[1] or Hasan b. Musa al-Khashshab,[2] the latter apparently pointing to his or his family’s job as a carpenter.[3]

Birth

There is no information about al-Khashshab's year of birth, but if his transmission from Ishaq b. 'Ammar al-Sayrafi—a companion of Imam al-Kazim (a)—is correct,[4] his year of birth must be at least the second half of the 2nd/8th century. According to Shushtari,[5] in some cases Hasan b. Musa al-Khashshab should not be confused with Hasan b. Musa al-Hannat, a companion of Imam al-Sadiq (a).[6]

Teachers

Although al-Shaykh al-Tusi[7] mentioned him as a companion of Imam Hasan al-'Askari (a), he never transmitted hadiths directly from him.[8] Most of his hadiths are indirectly transmitted from Imam al-Sadiq (a).

Khashshab transmitted hadiths from companions of Imam al-Rida (a) and Imam al-Jawad (a) such as Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abi Nasr al-Bazanti, 'Ali b. Asbat, and 'Ali b. Hassan al-Wasiti.[9]

Another teacher of his was Ghiyath b. Kallub[10] from whom Khashshab transmitted most of his hadiths.[11]

Khashshab is also mentioned as a transmitter of Ghiyath's book.[12] According to al-Shaykh al-Tusi,[13] Ghiyath b. Kallub was a Sunni Muslim, but Imami companions of the Imams (a) have relied on his hadiths where there is no contradicting Imami hadith. Ayatollah Khoe'i[14] has accordingly believed in Ghiyath's reliability.

Reliable and prominent transmitters of hadiths have transmitted hadiths from Khashshab,[15] including Muhammad b. Hasan al-Saffar al-Qummi,[16] 'Ali b. Ibrahim al-Qummi,[17] and Sa'd b. 'Abd Allah al-Ash'ari.[18] Humayd b. Ziyad has also transmitted many hadiths from Khashshab via Hasan b. 'Ali b. Yusuf, known as Ibn Baqqah, the Shiite transmitter who transmitted hadiths from the companions of Imam al-Sadiq (a).[19]

Reliability in 'Ilm al-Rijal

Early scholars of 'ilm al-rijal have confirmed the reliability of Hasan b. Musa, holding him to be a well-reputed figure, and praising him for his knowledge and the frequency of his hadiths.[20]

More recent scholars of 'ilm al-rijal have praised him.[21] Al-Jaza'iri[22] mentioned him as a praised transmitter of hadiths.[23]

Evidence for Reliability

Muhammad Baqir al-Bihbahani[24] appealed to the following evidence for the reliability of Khashshab:

  • The characteristics attributed to Khashshab by al-Najashi.
  • Al-Najashi's report that Ibn Walid has not mentioned Khashshab among the unreliable transmitters of hadiths from whom Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Yahya transmits.[25]
  • The reliance of al-Kashshi and his master, Hamdawayh b. Nasir on Hasan b. Musa al-Khashshab's hadiths with respect to Ahmad b. Hasan b. Isma'il al-Maythami[26] and Hasan b. Sama'a being Waqifis,[27] among other things.
  • Some hadith masters of Qom, such as 'Imran b. Musa and Muhammad b. Hasan al-Saffar have transmitted hadiths from him.

Mamaqani[28] has also appealed to the above evidence to argue that Khashshab was reliable and his hadiths are sahih or hasan which is close to sahih.[29]

Objections to his Reliability

Shushtari[30] has objected to arguments for Khashshab’s reliability. He holds that the transmission of Qumi scholars from him does not imply his reliability, since some of them transmit both reliable and unreliable hadiths, and those of them who are strict, such as Ahmad b. Muhammad b. 'Isa al-Ash'ari and Ibn Walid, did not transmit hadiths from Khashshab. Moreover, he believes that his exclusion from unreliable transmitters from whom Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Yahya transmitted can at most show that he is not unreliable, not that he is reliable.[31]

Subject-Matters of Khashshab's Hadiths

Most of Khashshab’s hadiths are concerned with issues of jurisprudence[32] or beliefs such as Divine Attributes,[33] the virtues of Ahl al-Bayt (a) and Shiite Imams (a),[34] knowledge of the hidden by the Imams (a),[35] the problem of Occultation,[36] and the rejection of Ghulat[37] (exaggerators about the Imams). He has also transmitted hadiths concerning moral issues.[38]

Ibn Qulawayh has transmitted hadiths from him with regard to the virtues of saying prayers in al-Sahla Mosque,[39] dhikrs, and Ziyara of Imam al-Husayn (a).[40]

According to al-Najashi,[41] Khashshab wrote two books under al-Radd 'ala l-Waqifa (rejection of Waqifis) and al-Nawadir as well as al-Hajj (concerning hajj) and al-Anbiya' (the propehts). Al-Najashi[42] and al-Shaykh al-Tusi[43] mentioned their chains of narrations for Khashshab's book. Al-Shaykh al-Tusi's chain of narration is considered to be unreliable.[44]

According to Muwahhid Abtahi,[45] Khashshab also had a book concerning 'ilm al-rijal, since al-Kashshi cited some remarks by him with respect to biographies and the reliability of transmitters of hadiths.[46]

Notes

  1. Khoeī, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 5 ,p. 145.
  2. Khoeī, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 5 ,p. 146, vol. 23, p. 92.
  3. Samʿānī, al-Ansāb, vol. 2, p. 366.
  4. Ṭūsī, al-Istibṣār, vol. 2, p. 214.
  5. Shūshtarī, Qāmūs al-rijāl, vol. 3, p. 385.
  6. Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 2, p. 357-358.
  7. Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl al-Ṭūsī, p. 398.
  8. Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl al-Ṭūsī, p. 420.
  9. Kulaynī, Uṣūl al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 192; Ṣadūq, Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh, vol. 4, p. 531; Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 1, p. 202; vol. 3, p. 37, 249; vol. 6, p. 214, 301; Khoeī, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 5, p. 392-393.
  10. Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 3, p. 29; vol. 6, p. 314; Ṭūsī, Fihrist kutub al-Shīʿa, p. 355-356.
  11. Khoeī, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 5, p. 391-395.
  12. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 305; Ṭūsī, Fihrist kutub al-Shīʿa, p. 356.
  13. Ṭūsī, ʿUddat al-uṣūl, vol. 1, p. 379-380.
  14. Khoeī, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 13, p. 235.
  15. Khoeī, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 5, p. 392-395.
  16. Ṣaffār, Baṣāʾir al-darajāt, p. 31, 78, 337, 527; Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 5, p. 377; vol. 6, p. 162.
  17. Kulaynī, Uṣūl al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 337; vol.5, p. 470.
  18. Ibn Qūlawayh, Kāmil al-zīyārāt, p. 84, 215, 427; Ṣadūq, Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh, vol. 4, p. 531; Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 1, p. 202; vol. 3, p. 200, 324.
  19. Kulaynī, Uṣūl al-Kāfī, vol. 2, p. 87, 114, 467, 621; vol. 3, p. 504; vol. 5, p. 34, 147, 325; vol. 6, p. 297, 300, 539; Khoeī, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 5, p. 392, 395; vol. 23, p. 343-344.
  20. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 42; Ibn Dāwūd al-Ḥillī, Kitāb al-rijāl, p. 78; Ḥillī, Khulāṣat al-aqwāl, p. 104.
  21. Ṭurayḥī, Jāmiʿ al-maqāl, p. 105; Ardabīlī, Jāmiʿ al-ruwāt, vol. 1, p. 227; Majlisī, al-Wajīza, p. 60; Kāzimī, Hidāyat al-muḥaddithīn, p. 193.
  22. Jazāʾirī, Hāwi l-aqwāl fī maʿrifat al-rijāl, vol. 3, p. 100.
  23. Mūsawī ʿĀmilī, Madārik al-aḥkām, vol. 7, p. 360.
  24. Bihbahānī, Taʿliqāt ʿalā manhaj al-maqāl, p. 155
  25. Mamaqānī, Tanqīḥ al-maqāl, vol. 21, p. 8990.
  26. Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 468.
  27. Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 469.
  28. Mamaqānī, Tanqīḥ al-maqāl, vol. 21, p. 90.
  29. Zanjāni, Kitāb al-jāmiʿ fī al-rijāl, p. 559; Muwaḥḥid Abṭahī, Tahdhīb al-maqāl, vol. 2, p. 55; Mamaqānī, Tanqīḥ al-maqāl, vol. 21, p. 92.
  30. Shūshtarī, Qāmūs al-rijāl, vol. 3, p. 385.
  31. Mamaqānī, Tanqīḥ al-maqāl, vol. 21, p. 90-91; Khoeī, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 1, p. 74-75.
  32. Kulaynī, Uṣūl al-Kāfī, vol. 3, p. 542; vol. 5, p. 147, 470; vol. 6, p. 252, 297, 300, 305; vol. 7, p. 173; Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 1, p. 138, 202, 337-338, 444; vol. 2, p. 53-54, 297, 358; Ardabīlī, Jāmiʿ al-ruwāt, vol. 1, p. 227-228; Khoeī, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 5, p. 391-395; vol. 23, p. 343-344.
  33. Kulaynī, Uṣūl al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 127; Ṣadūq, al-Tawḥīd, 316-317; Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 279-280.
  34. Ṣaffār, Baṣāʾir al-darajāt, p. 31, 37, 60, 65, 77-78, 81, 91-92, 98, 125, 138, 226, 340, 500; Kulaynī, Uṣūl al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 180, 192, 221, 275.
  35. Ṣaffār, Baṣāʾir al-darajāt, p. 232-234, 242-243, 337, 346-347, 413, 440; Kulaynī, Uṣūl al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 229.
  36. Kulaynī, Uṣūl al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 337; Ṣadūq, Kamāl al-dīn, vol. 2, p. 360, 382.
  37. Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 225-226.
  38. Kulaynī, Uṣūl al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 27; vol. 2, p. 87, 114, 467; vol. 4, p. 22.
  39. Ibn Qūlawayh, Kāmil al-zīyārāt, p. 74-76.
  40. Ibn Qūlawayh, Kāmil al-zīyārāt, p. 212, 215, 286, 427.
  41. Najāshī, Rijāl, p. 42.
  42. Najāshī, Rijāl, p. 42.
  43. Ṭūsī, Fihrist kutub al-Shīʿa, p. 127.
  44. Khoeī, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 5, p. 145; Muwaḥḥid Abṭahī, Tahdhīb al-maqāl, vol. 2, p. 56.
  45. Muwaḥḥid Abṭahī, Tahdhīb al-maqāl, vol. 2, p. 56.
  46. Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 80, 8990.

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