Sanat al-wufūd (Arabic: سنة الوفود) or 'Ām al-wufūd (Arabic: عام الوفود), or the Year of Delegates is the 9th year after Hijra/(630-1). This is called so because after the conquest of Mecca (fath al-Makka), many delegates from different Arabian tribes went to the Prophet (s), and expressed their commitment to Islam, and were kindly received by the Prophet (s).
|Significant Events of|
Prophet Muhammad's (s) Lifetime
|624||Change of the Qibla|
|624||Battle of Badr|
|624||Battle of Banu Qaynuqa'|
|624||Marriage of Imam Ali (a) and Lady Fatima (a)|
|625||Battle of Uhud|
|625||Battle of Banu Nadir|
|627||Battle of Khandaq|
|627||Battle of Banu Qurayza|
|628||Hudaybiyya Peace Treaty|
|628||Battle of Khaybar|
|629||Presenting Fadak to Lady Fatima (a)|
|629||Battle of Mu'ta|
|630||Conquest of Mecca|
|630||Battle of Hunayn|
|630||Battle of Ta'if|
|630||More dominance over Arabia|
|630||Battle of Tabuk|
|632||Event of Ghadir|
Both words "sane" (Arabic:سنة) and "'Am" (Arabic:عام) mean 'year', and "Wafd" (Arabic: وفد), the plural form of which is "wufud", means a delegate that goes to a ruler or a governor for an important matter.
The reason for naming
Before and after the 9th year of Hijra/630-1, delegates from different Arabian tribes went to the Prophet (s) to express their conversion to Islam, but it seems that most of these delegates went to the Prophet (s) in 9/630-1, which is the reason why it was called the Year of Delegates.
The delegates and the conversion to Islam
After the conquest of Mecca, many groups of people from different Arabian tribes went to Medina in order to visit the Prophet (s) and convert to Islam. They were kindly received by the Prophet (s). This led to a unification of the Arabian Peninsula, turning all the conflicts and quarrels into peace. In his I'lam al-wara, al-Tabrisi writes: "when the Thaqif tribe (people of Ta'if) converted to Islam, the other tribes sent groups of delegates to Medina and converted to Islam, as God had said in advance". This refers to the Qur'anic verse in which God has predicted the conquest of Mecca and the conversion of groups of people to Islam:
When comes the help of Allah and victory (or opening) (1) And you see people enter Allah's religion in crowds
|— The Quran, 110:1-2|
Here are some of the delegates who went to the Prophet (s) and converted to Islam:
- The delegate from the Assad tribe
- The delegate from the Fazara tribe
- The delegate of Hilal b. Amir
- The delegate of Banu Kinana
- The delegate of Tajib
The book, Tarikh-i payambar-i Islam (The history of the Prophet of Islam) by Muhammad Ibrahim Ayati has a detailed account of these delegates.
Other important events of 9 A.H.
- Main article: 9 AH
- Six Sariyyas occurred in this year: "the sariyya of 'Uyayna b. Hisn al-Fazari," "the sariyya of Dahhak b. Sufyan al-Kilabi]]," the sariyya in which Thumama was captured, "the sariyya of 'Alqama b. Mujazzaz al-Mudliji, "the sariyya of Ali b. Abi Talib (a), and "the sariyya of 'Ukkasha b. Mihsan."
- The Battle of Tabuk
- Some rich people tried to excuse themselves from taking part in wars, but some Quranic verses were revealed about them:
Among them is a man who says: "grant me exemption and draw me not into trial." Have they not fallen into trial already? And indeed hell surrounds the unbelievers
|— Quran, 9:49|
- Some hypocrites tried to discourage others from attending the wars, but a Quranic verse was revealed against them:
They said, "go not forth in the heat." Say, "the fire of hell is fiercer in heat." If only they could understand!
|— The Qur'an, 9:81|
- The Prophet (s) appointed Ali b. Abi Talib (a) as his successor in Hadith al-Manzila.
- The Event of Ashab al-'Aqaba
- The building of Masjid al-Dirar and the revelation of some Quranic verses in this regard.
- Farāhīdī, Kitāb al-ʿayn, under the word "Wafd".
- Āyatī, Tārīkh-i payāmbar-i Islām, p. 537.
- Āyatī, Tārīkh-i payāmbar-i Islām, p. 537.
- Ṭabrisī, Iʿlām al-warā, vol. 1, p. 250.
- Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 79.
- Āyatī, Tārīkh-i payāmbar-i Islām, p. 504-510.
- Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 4, p. 159; Āyatī, Tārīkh-i payāmbar-i Islām, p. 510.
- Mufīd, al-Irshād, p. 70; Āyatī, Tārīkh-i payāmbar-i Islām, p. 515.
- Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 68; Masʿūdī, al-Tanbīh wa al-ishrāf, p. 236; Ibn Qutayba, al-Maʿārif, p. 343; Maqrizī, Imtāʿ al-asmāʾ, vol. 1, 479; Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 5, p. 20; Ḥalabī, al-Sīra al-ḥalabiyya, vol. 3, p. 142; Āyatī, Tārīkh-i payāmbar-i Islām, p. 523.
- Maqrizī, Imtāʿ al-asmāʾ, vol. 1, 480; Āyatī, Tārīkh-i payāmbar-i Islām, p. 524; Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 4, p. 173.
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