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Muhammad b. Mas'ud al-'Ayyashi

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Muhammad b. Mas'ud al-'Ayyashi
Al-'Ayyashi
Full Name Muhammad b. Mas'ud al-'Ayyashi Sullami Samarqandi
Teknonym Abu al-Nadr
Religious Affiliation Shi'a
Well-known Relatives Ja'far b. Muhammad b. Mas'ud al-'Ayyashi
Place of Birth Samarqand
Places of Residence Kufa, Baghdad, Qom and Samarqand
Known for His commentary book, Tafsir al-'Ayyashi
Professors [Ali b. Hasan b. Ali b. Faddal]] and 'Abd Allah b. Muhammad b. Khalid Tayalisi
Students Muhammad b. 'Umar b. 'Abd al-'Aziz Kashshi
Works Tafsir al-'Ayyashi

Muḥammad b. Masʿūd al-ʿAyyāshī al-Samarqandī, (Arabic:مُحَمَّد بن مَسْعُود العَیّاشی السَّمَرقَنْدی) was among the shi'a scholars of the 4th/10th century. He first was Sunni but after studying Shi'a works, changed his faith to Shi'a. Al-'Ayyashi had many works in exegesis, jurisprudence, Arabic literature and hadith. Tafsir al-'Ayyashi is his most famous work.

Introduction

Muhammad b. Mas'ud al-'Ayyashi Sullami Samarqandi whose kunya was Abu al-Nadr is among Shi'a scholars. According to the famous view, he was born in Samarqand; while, it has also been mentioned that he was "Tamimi".[1] Due to being born in a region where most people were Sunni, al-'Ayyashi was first Sunni, but after studying Shi'a works, he changed his faith to Shi'a and became Shi'a. He then went to Kufa, Baghdad and Qom for education.[2] Because of his great eagerness to learning and preaching religion, upon his return to Samarqand, he spent all the heritage of his father for dissemination of knowledge and hadiths.[3]

Al-'Ayyashi was contemporary with Shaykh Kulayni.[4] Zarkali mentioned the date of al-'Ayyashi's demise 320.[5]

Holding Scientific Gatherings

After his education in scientific centers of Kufa, Baghdad and Qom, al-'Ayyashi returned to Samarqand and began teaching and preaching Shi'a religious teachings. Many reciters of the Qur'an, writers and scholars went to his house every day.[6]

He held two sessions: One scientific session for all people publicly and another gathering for his special students privately.[7]

Works

208 works in different fields of knowledge such as history, fiqh, Arabic literature, exegesis and astronomy are mentioned for al-'Ayyashi.[8] He also had works in different topics of fiqh including prayer, hajj, fasting, etc. Most of his works are lost among which, one commentary called Tafsir al-'Ayyashi is only remained.

Teachers

Al-'Ayyashi acquired knowledge from different teachers in scientific centers of Kufa, Baghdad and Qom; including Ali b. Hasan b. Ali b. Faddal and 'Abd Allah b. Muhammad b. Khalid Tayalisi.[9]

Students

Al-'Ayyashi educated many students whose names are mentioned in the books of rijal. One of his most famous students was Muhammad b. 'Umar b. 'Abd al-'Aziz Kashshi.[10] Another famous student was his son, Ja'far b. Muhammad b. Mas'ud al-'Ayyashi, whose name is mentioned in hidiths' chians of the transmission transmitted by al-'Ayyashi. In most of al-'Ayyashi's works, the name of Ja'far, his son, is mentioned.

Notes

  1. Ibn Nadīm, al-Fihrist, p. 274; Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, vol. 1, p. 350.
  2. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, vol. 1, p. 350.
  3. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, vol. 1, p. 351.
  4. Āqā Buzurg Tihrānī, al-Dharīʿa, vol. 2, p. 35.
  5. Ziriklī, al-Aʿlām, vol. 7, p. 95.
  6. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, vol. 1, p. 351.
  7. Ṭūsī, Rijāl, vol. 1, p. 440.
  8. Ibn Nadīm, al-Fihrist, p. 277.
  9. Tafrishī, Naqd al-rijāl, vol. 3, p. 82; Ṭūsī, Rijāl al-Kashshī, vol. 1, p. 362.
  10. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, vol. 1, p. 372; Ṭūsī, Rijāl, vol. 1, p. 440.

References

  • Āqā Buzurg Tihrānī, Sayyid Muḥammad Muḥsīn. Al-Dharīʿa ilā taṣānīf al-shīʿa. Qom: Ismāʿīlīyān, 1408 AH.
  • Ibn Nadīm, Muḥammad b. Isḥāq. Al-Fihrist. Beirut: Dār al-Maʿrifa, [n.d].
  • Najāshī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-. Rijāl al-Najāshī. Edited by Sayyid Mūsā Shubayrī Zanjānī. Qom: Daftar-i Nashr-i Islāmī, [n.d].
  • Tafrishī, Muṣṭafā b. al-Ḥusayn. Naqd al-rijāl. Qom: Muʾassisat Āl al-Bayt, 1377 Sh.
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Rijāl al-Kashshī. Edited by Mahdī Rajāʾī. Mashhad: Dānishkada-yi Ilāhīyyāt wa Maʿārif-i Islāmī, [n.d].
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Rijāl. Edited by Jawād Qayyūmī Iṣfahānī. Qom: Daftar-i Nashr-i Islāmī, [n.d].
  • Ziriklī, Khayr al-Dīn al-. Al-Aʿlām. Beirut: Dār al-ʿIlm, 1989.