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Muhammad b. Mas'ud al-'Ayyashi

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Muhammad b. Mas'ud al-'Ayyashi
Full Name Muhammad b. Mas'ud al-'Ayyashi Sullami Samarqandi
Kunya Abu al-Nadr
Religious Affiliation Shi'a
Well-known Relatives Ja'far b. Muhammad b. Mas'ud al-'Ayyashi
Place of Birth Samarqand
Places of Residence Kufa, Baghdad, Qom and Samarqand
Known for His commentary book, Tafsir al-'Ayyashi
Professors [Ali b. Hasan b. Ali b. Faddal]] and 'Abd Allah b. Muhammad b. Khalid Tayalisi
Students Muhammad b. 'Umar b. 'Abd al-'Aziz Kashshi
Works Tafsir al-'Ayyashi

Muḥammad b. Masʿūd al-ʿAyyāshī al-Samarqandī, (Arabic:مُحَمَّد بن مَسْعُود العَیّاشی السَّمَرقَنْدی) was among the shi'a scholars of the 4th/10th century. He first was Sunni but after studying Shi'a works, changed his faith to Shi'a. Al-'Ayyashi had many works in exegesis, fiqh, Arabic literature and hadith. Tafsir al-'Ayyashi is his most famous work.


Muhammad b. Mas'ud al-'Ayyashi Sullami Samarqandi whose kunya was Abu al-Nadr is among Shi'a scholars. According to the famous view, he was born in Samarqand; while, it has also been mentioned that he was "Tamimi". Due to being born in a region where most people were Sunni, al-'Ayyashi was first Sunni, but after studying Shi'a works, he changed his faith to Shi'a and became Shi'a. He then went to Kufa, Baghdad and Qom for education. Because of his great eagerness to learning and preaching religion, upon his return to Samarqand, he spent all the heritage of his father for dissemination of knowledge and hadiths.

Al-'Ayyashi was contemporary with Shaykh Kulayni. Zarkali mentioned the date of al-'Ayyashi’s demise 320.

Holding Scientific Gatherings

After his education in scientific centers of Kufa, Baghdad and Qom, al-'Ayyashi returned to Samarqand and began teaching and preaching Shi'a religious teachings. Many reciters of the Qur'an, writers and scholars went to his house every day.

He held two sessions: One scientific session for all people publicly and another gathering for his special students privately.


208 works in different fields of knowledge such as history, fiqh, Arabic literature, exegesis and astronomy are mentioned for al-'Ayyashi. He also had works in different topics of fiqh including prayer, hajj, fasting, etc. Most of his works are lost among which, one commentary called Tafsir al-'Ayyashi is only remained.


Al-'Ayyashi acquired knowledge from different teachers in scientific centers of Kufa, Baghdad and Qom; including Ali b. Hasan b. Ali b. Faddal and 'Abd Allah b. Muhammad b. Khalid Tayalisi.


Al-'Ayyashi educated many students whose names are mentioned in the books of rijal. One of his most famous students was Muhammad b. 'Umar b. 'Abd al-'Aziz Kashshi. Another famous student was his son, Ja'far b. Muhammad b. Mas'ud al-'Ayyashi, whose name is mentioned in hidiths' chians of the transmission transmitted by al-'Ayyashi. In most of al-'Ayyashi’s works, the name of Ja'far, his son, is mentioned.