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Hajj al-Tamattu'

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Pilgrims performing tawaf around the Ka'ba during hajj al-tamattu'.

Ḥajj al-Tamattuʿ (Arabic: حَجّ التَمَتُّع) is one of the three types of hajj in Islam. This kind of hajj is obligatory for a person whose distance from Mecca is over 16 parasangs or 48 miles. Hajj al-Tamattu' consists of two parts: 'Umra al-Tamattu' and Hajj al-Tamattu'.

Reason for Appellation

"Tamattu'" literally means to enjoy, and Hajj al-Tamattu' is called so because the forbidden actions during ihram are permitted and can be enjoyed in the interval between 'Umra al-Tamattu' and the hajj, and since 'Umra al-Tamattu' is part of the hajj such that they judicially count as the same action, the permissibility of the forbidden actions of ihram in this interval counts as their permissibility within the hajj.

Obligation-Based Ruling

Hajj al-Tamattu' is an obligation of an "āfāqī" person, that is, a person who lives in a place which is at least 12 or 16 parasangs away from Mecca (according to different views on this issue). In a mustahab (or recommended) hajj, the person has the option to choose any type of hajj.

Manners

Hajj al-Tamattu' consists of two parts: 'Umra al-Tamattu' and Hajj al-Tamattu'.

Sa'y between Safa and Marwa. According to hadiths, when Hajar was searching for water for Isma'il, she went back and forth between al-Safa and al-Marwa mountains for seven times.

'Umra al-Tamattu'

'Umra al-Tamattu' consists of four actions:

  1. Wearing the ihram from the miqat in the months of hajj (Shawwal, Dhu l-Qa'da, and Dhu l-Hijja).
  2. Tawaf: seven rounds of circumambulating around the Ka'ba.
  3. Salat al-Tawaf (prayer of Tawaf): two rak'as of prayer behind Maqam Ibrahim (a).
  4. Sa'y between Safa and Marwa: seven times of travelling between Safa and Marwa.
  5. Taqsir: with taqsir, the pilgrim exits the ihram and everything which was forbidden during ihram becomes halal.

Hajj al-Tamattu'

Hajj al-Tamattu' consists of 13 actions:

Pilgrims are stoning the Jamarat. The old structure was replaced in 2007 to handle more pilgrims and reduce the number of casualties.
  1. Wearing the ihram in Mecca when one knows that he or she will have the occasion for a stay in 'Arafat afterwards, although one had better wear the ihram on the Day of Tarwiya (Dhu l-Hijja 8).
  2. Wuquf in 'Arafat (stay in 'Arafat): from the noon to the sunset of the day of 'Arafa (Dhu l-Hijja 9).
  3. Staying the night in Mash'ar al-Haram on the eve of Eid al-Adha and staying there from the dawn until the sunrise.
  4. Ramy al-Jamra al-'Aqaba: hitting seven small stones to al-Jamra al-'Aqaba on the day of Eid al-Adha.
  5. Sacrificing an animal in Mina on Dhu l-Hijja 10, and according to some views, eating some of its meat.
  6. Shaving the head (Halq) or taqsir in Mina on Eid al-Adha.
  7. Tawaf of pilgrimage.
  8. The prayer of the tawaf: two rak'as of prayer behind Maqam Ibrahim (a).
  9. Sa'y between Safa and Marwa: seven times of traveling back and forth between Safa and Marwa.
  10. Tawaf al-Nisa'.
  11. Prayer of Tawaf al-Nisa': two rak'as of prayer behind Maqam Ibrahim (a).
  12. Staying the night in Mina during Ayyam al-Tashriq (the nights of Dhu l-Hijja 11 and 12, and according to some scholars.
  13. Ramy al-Jamarat: throwing stones at the tree Jamras on Dhu l-Hijja 11, 12, and 13 for people who spent the night in Mina.

The hajj pilgrims can do the rituals of hajj in the above order, or they can stay in Mina after shaving or taqsir, and then return to Mecca after the noon once they do the rituals of Mina (staying the night and throwing stones at the three Jamras), and in Mecca they should do the rituals of Mecca (tawaf, prayer of tawaf, sa'y, tawaf al-nisa', and its prayer). They can also stay the eve of Dhu l-Hijja 13 in Mina and return to Mecca after throwing stones at the tree Jamras on Dhu l-Hijja 13, even before the noon.

Rulings

A person who is obliged to perform Hajj al-Tamattu' cannot shift to Hajj al-Qiran or Hajj al-Ifrad, and in case they shift, the obligation of Hajj al-Tamattu' is not lifted except in cases of compulsion, such as shortness of time or the onset of menstruation for a woman.

It is mustahab (recommended) to perform a mustahab hajj in the form of Tamattu', even if the pilgrim is "afaqi".

After shaving or taqsir, everything which was forbidden after the ihram will be halal for the pilgrim except women and perfumes, according to the majority of scholars. And after the tawaf of pilgrim, its prayer and sa'y, the perfume will also be halal, according to the majority of scholars. And after tawaf al-nisa' and its prayer, women will also be halal.

Conditions

In addition to the general conditions of hajj, Hajj al-Tamattu' has the following conditions as well:

  1. The intention to perform hajj while wearing ihram for 'Umra al-Tamattu'
  2. It must be done in the months of hajj, that is, Shawwal, Dhu l-Qa'da and Dhu l-Hijja
  3. 'Umra al-Tamattu' and Hajj al-Tamattu' should be performed in the same year
  4. Wearing the ihram for Hajj al-Tamattu' in Mecca, where the most virtuous place to do so is Masjid al-Haram, where the most virtuous part to do so is Maqam Ibrahim (a) or Hijr Isma'il (a).

Features of Hajj al-Tamattu'

In comparison with Hajj al-Qiran and Hajj al-Ifrad, Hajj al-Tamattu' has the following features:

  1. In Tamattu', 'umra and hajj are continuous and inseparable, unlike Qiran and Ifrad in which 'umra is not obligatory except by nadhr and the like.
  2. In Tamattu', 'umra is performed before the hajj, but in the other two kinds of hajj, it is performed after the hajj.
  3. In Tamattu', 'umra should be performed in the months of hajj, unlike the other two kinds of hajj, although it is obligatory to perform it after the rituals of hajj.
  4. In Tamattu', 'umra and hajj should be performed in the same year, unlike Qiran and Ifrad.
  5. According to the majority of scholars, in Tamattu', it is permissible to leave Mecca after performing the 'umra only with the ihram of hajj, except when returning to Mecca before one month has passed. Other scholars believe that it is just makruh (or disliked). However, in other kinds of hajj, one can leave Mecca without ihram whenever they want.
  6. In Tamattu', the miqat of hajj is Mecca itself, but in Qiran and Ifrad, the miqat is one of the five well-known miqats or the pilgrim's house if it is closer to Mecca that those miqats.
  7. In Tamattu', the miqat of 'umra is one of the well-known miqats or a place that counts as a miqat, unlike the miqat of the 'umra of Qiran and Ifrad which is adna al-hill for a resident of haram and one of the five miqats or one's house for a person who resides outside the haram.
  8. People wearing the ihram of the 'Umra al-Tamattu' should stop the talbiya as soon as they see the houses of Mecca, but people wearing the ihram of al-'Umra al-Mufrada should stop the talbiya after seeing the Ka'ba if they have left Mecca for ihram; otherwise they should stop the talbiya after entering the haram. There are other views about when to stop the talbiya as well.
  9. 'Umra al-Tamattu' does not involve tawaf al-nisa', but according to the majority of scholars, 'Umra al-Qiran and 'Umra al-Ifrad do involve tawaf al-nisa'.
  10. In Tamattu', it is not permissible to perform tawaf of pilgrimage and sa'y before the stay in 'Arafat and Mash'ar except if it is compulsory to do so, unlike Hajj al-Qiran and Hajj al-Ifrad, in which the majority of scholars believe that it is permissible to do so.
  11. It is permissible in Hajj al-Ifrad and Hajj al-Qiran to perform the tawaf of pilgrimage, sa'y and tawaf al-nisa' after Ayyam al-Tashriq during Dhu l-Hijja, but in Hajj al-Tamattu', it is forbidden or disliked (makruh) to do so, according to different views.
  12. According to one view, in Tamattu', it is haram to perform a mustahab tawaf after wearing the ihram of hajj, but faqihs have a consensus that it is permissible to do so in the other two kinds of hajj.
  13. In Tamattu', it is valid to wear the ihram only with talbiya, but in Hajj al-Qiran, according to the majority of faqihs, it is valid to wear the ihram with talbiya, as well as ish'ar and taqlid.
  14. In Tamattu', it is obligatory to sacrifice an animal, but it is only mustahab in the other two kinds of hajj.
  15. In Hajj al-Ifrad, it is permissible to shift to Hajj al-Tamattu' if there is no other problem, but in Hajj al-Tamattu', it is not permissible to shift from Hajj al-Tamattu' to Hajj al-Ifrad. In Hajj al-Qiran, it is neither permissible to shift to it, nor from it.

References

  • The material for this article is mainly taken from حج تمتع in Farsi WikiShia.