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Tawaf al-Nisa'

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Ṭawāf al-Nisāʾ (Arabic:طواف النساء) is one of the compulsory rituals of hajj and 'umra. Before performing tawaf al-nisa' all sexual activities is haram. tawaf al-nisa' is only found in Shi'a fiqh and there is no such ritual in Sunni fiqh.

Compulsion Cases

This kind of tawaf is wajib (compulsory) on men, women, children and even those who do not want to get married in all kind of hajj and 'umra except for 'umrat al-tamatu'. kaffara of having sexual intercourse during hajj before performing tawaf al-nisa' is sacrificing a camel.[1] However, there are disagreement whether all sexual activities are haram (prohibited) during Ihram or only the intimacy.[2]

Tawaf al-nisa' is not a rukn (elemental part) of hajj and 'umra i.e. hajj or 'umra is not void if one does not perform it; however, it is compulsory that one performs it or if one cannot another person performs it in one's behalf.[3]

How to Perform

Main article: Tawaf

Tawaf al-nisa' is performed after sa'y of Safa and Marwa and only differs with tawaf al-ziyara in intention (niyya).[4] This tawaf can be done in regular clothes (and not ihram outfit) provided it is done after halq and taqsir.[5]

After sa'y, all prohibition of ihram except for using perfume and sexual activities are lifted. By performing halq or taqsir using perfume will be allowed and after finishing the prayer of tawaf al-nisa' sexual activities with one's spouse.

Tawaf al-Nisa' among Shi'a

According to several hadiths from Ahl al-Bayt (a),[6] all Shi'a faqihs believe that tawaf al-nisa' is wajib (compulsory). Al-Shaykh al-Tusi added the consensus of Shi'a faqihs and Precaution (Ihtiyat)—that all Muslims believe by Ihram sexual activities are banned and we doubt that it is lifted without tawaf al-nisa'; so the Precaution is performing it— to the sources of this ruling.[7]

Some Shi'a hadiths indicate that the 29th verse of Sura al-Hajj is about tawaf al-nisa', and some explicitly mention that tawaf al-nisa' was performed even in the time of Prophet Adam (a)[8] and Prophet Noah (a).[9]

Tawaf al-Nisa' among Sunni

There is no such thing as tawaf al-nisa' in Sunni fiqh; however, "Tawaf al-Qudum," "tawaf al-ifada", and "Tawaf al-Wida'" are discussed.[10] Their proof is a hadith that says Prophet Muhammad (s) only performed two tawaf in Hajjat al-Wida'.

Shi'a faqihs believe that there are three tawafs in hajj al-tamattu', which always consists of 'umrat al-tamattu' and hajj al-tamattu': Tawaf al-Ziyara of 'Umrat al-Tamatu', Tawaf al-Ziyara of Hajj al-Tamatu' and tawaf al-nisa' of Hajj al-Tamatu'. But according to both Shi'a and Sunni hadiths, the Prophet's (s) hajj was hajj al-qiran or al-ifrad[11] (and not al-tamattu') so there was not 'umrat al-tamattu'; so he only performed two tawafs: tawaf al-ziyara and tawaf al-nisa'.

Tawaf al-Wida' instead of Tawaf al-Nisa'

According to Shi'a faqihs tawaf al-wida' (farewell tawaf), which is performed when returning back from Mecca, is mustahab (recommended). Among Sunnis, Hanafis and Hanbalis hold the compulsion of tawaf al-wida' and Malikis say that it is mustahab. Al-Shafi'i, in one of his two fatwas, says that is wajib (compulsory).[12]

In some Shi'a hadiths, tawaf al-wida' from Sunnis is regarded as tawaf al-nisa' which lifts the prohibition of sexual activities with spouse.[13]

Notes

  1. Narāqī, Mustanad al-Shīʿa, vol. 13, p. 247.
  2. Maḥmūdī, Manāsik-i ḥajj, Issue 1182.
  3. Narāqī, Mustanad al-Shīʿa, vol. 13, p. 23-25.
  4. Fallāḥzāda, Durūs-i aḥkām wa manāsik-i ḥajj, p. 211.
  5. Fallāḥzāda, Durūs-i aḥkām wa manāsik-i ḥajj, p. 194.
  6. Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol. 13, p. 298.
  7. Ṭūsī, al-Khilāf, vol. 2, p. 363.
  8. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 8, p. 21.
  9. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 8, p. 78.
  10. Mughnīya, al-Fiqh ʿalā al-madhāhib al-khamsa, p. 231.
  11. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 8, p. 160.
  12. Mughnīya, al-Fiqh ʿalā al-madhāhib al-khamsa, p. 230.
  13. Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 5, p. 253.

References

  • Fallāḥzāda, Muḥammad Ḥusayn. Durūs-i aḥkām wa manāsik-i ḥajj. Tehran: Nashr-i Mashʿar, 1387 Sh.
  • Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa. Qom: Muʾassisat Āl al-Bayt, 1409 AH.
  • Kulaynī, Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb al-. Al-Kāfī. Qom: Dār al-Ḥadīth, 1430 AH.
  • Maḥmūdī, Muḥammad Riḍā. Manāsik-i ḥajj. Tehran: Nashr-i Mashʿar, 1387 Sh.
  • Mughnīya, Muḥammad Jawād al-. Al-Fiqh ʿalā al-madhāhib al-khamsa. Tenth edition. Beirut: Dār al-Tayyār al-Jadīd wa Dār al-Jawād, 1421 AH.
  • Narāqī, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-. Mustanad al-Shīʿa. Mashhad: Muʾassisat Āl al-Bayt, 1415 AH.
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Al-Khilāf. Edited by ʿAlī Khurāsānī et.al. Fifth edition. Qom: Daftar-i Nashr-i Islāmī, 1418 AH.