In the period of Prophet Muhammad (s), his hadiths were written down by Imam Ali (a) and a number of other Sahaba. After the demise of the Prophet (s), there was a remarkable difference between the way hadiths were written among Sunni Muslims and the way they were written among the Shi'as. The first and the second caliphs, followed by 'Uthman b. 'Affan, adopted the official policy of prohibiting the writing, transmission, and compilations of the Prophet's (s) hadiths. They even burned down a great number of written hadiths.
'Umar b. 'Abd al-'Aziz changed the official policy in the early 2nd/8th century, and then the compilation of hadith books began. Al-Sihah al-Sitta were written until the 4th/10th century, but the prohibition of the writing and transmission of hadiths for over a century undermined the authenticity of later sources of hadiths.
The Shi'as practiced the writing and compilation of hadiths since the period of the Prophet (s) and then in the periods of the Infallible Imams (a) until the Minor Occultation. The Book of 'Ali (a), Jami'a and other texts by Imam 'Ali (a) and al-Usul al-arba'ami'a (the four hundred principles) by companions of the Imams (a) were produced in this period. In later centuries, hadiths were organized and collected. The Four Books were written until the early 5th/11th century, and then scholars of hadiths concerned themselves with the collection and classification of hadiths.
Shiite Efforts for Hadith-Writing
At the request of the Prophet (s) himself, Imam 'Ali (a) and some other Sahaba wrote his hadiths during his lifetime. Imam 'Ali (a) had written several books regarding the Prophet's (s) traditions. Below are some of the most important such books.
Kitab 'Ali (a)
Kitab 'Ali (a) (the Book of 'Ali (a)) is mentioned in many hadiths, and parts of it are cited in different hadiths. It involves issues of jurisprudence. The Shiite Imams (a) had this book at their disposal, and it is believed to be in the hands of Imam Mahdi (a) at present. According to a hadith from Imam al-Sadiq (a), Imam Zayn al-'Abidin (a) regularly consulted the Book of 'Ali (a). There are some hadiths which imply that people other than the Imam (a) also had access to this book.
Jami'a is a book dictated by the Prophet (s) and written down by Imam 'Ali (a). The Shi'as take this book as a symbol for their Imams' (a) inheritance of the Prophet's (s) knowledge. The book is frequently mentioned in Imami and some Sunni books. It is sometimes identified with the Book of 'Ali (a).
Kitab al-fara'id was either a part of Kitab 'Ali or an elaborated version thereof. It was available to people such as Zurara b. A'yan, Yunus b. 'Abd al-Rahman and Ibn Faddal in the 2nd/8th century.
Kitab al-diyat is another text of hadiths which is also known after its transmitters as Kitab 'Abd Allah b. Abjar or Diyat Zarif b. Nasih. The full text of this book appears in the Four Books. According to its preface, it was a collection of Imam 'Ali's (a) fatwas concerning diyat (blood money) written by one of his companions. Copies of this book were ordered to be sent to the Imam's (a) agents.
Manahi l-Nabiy (s)
Manahi l-Nabiy (s) is concerned with jurisprudence and ethics, and is, according to its preface, a collection of dictations of the Prophet (s) written down by Imam 'Ali (a). It was transmitted by a person called Shu'ayb b. Waqid and was frequently referred to by the Imamiyya. Al-Mas'udi has also referred to a manuscript with the handwriting of Imam 'Ali (a) and the dictation of the Prophet (s) as the heritage of Ahl al-Bayt (a).
Books of Other Imams (a)
- Al-Sahifat al-Sajjadiyya is an ethical text attributed to Imam al-Sajjad (a). It contains supplications by the Imam (a). Historically speaking, it was the most consulted book by the Imamiyya. Despite some differences in various versions of the book, its main text is accurately reported.
- Another text is Risalat al-huquq which is attributed to Imam al-Sajjad (a). It is concerned with knowledge of God's rights, people's rights, and other rights.
Imam al-Sadiq's (a) works include Tawhid al-Mufaddal concerning some of his meetings about theology, Ihlilija concerning a debate about God, his exegesis of the Qur'an as transmitted by Abu 'Abd al-Rahman al-Silmi, and Misbah al-shari'a concerning ethics.
Books by Companions of the Imams (a)
There are some collections of hadiths that are reportedly compiled by companions of Imam 'Ali (a). Some companions of Imam 'Ali (a), such as Sulaym b. Qays al-Hilali, 'Ubayd Allah b. Abi Rafi', and his brother, 'Ali, compiled and wrote hadiths. However, it is only Sulaym b. Qays al-Hilali's work (Asrar Al Muhammad) which is available to us today. There are disagreements about whether the book matches the main text of Sulaym, but the present text is concerned with imamate and controversies between the Shi'as and Sunnis regarding the events in the early period of Islam. Other companions of Imam 'Ali (a), such as Asbagh b. Nubata and Zayd b. Wahab al-Juhni, also collected the Imam's (a) sermons and letters.
The most important book of hadiths written by the Zaydiyya in the early 2nd/8th century is a book containing hadiths transmitted by Zayd b. 'Ali (d. 122/740), the leader of Zaydiyya. It was collected by his student, Abu Khalid al-Wasiti (d. after 145/762). It was the most reliable Zaydi source of hadiths throughout the history. It was sometimes known as Musnad Zayd or al-Majmu' al-fiqhi. It contains hadiths from the Prophet (s) and Imam 'Ali (a) mostly concerning jurisprudence. Moreover, there are other collections of hadiths allegedly collected by Abu Khalid which were commonly consulted by Zaydi as well as Imami Shi'as.
There is an essay attributed to Zayd b. 'Ali under Risala fi huquq Allah (an essay concerning divine rights) manuscripts of which are available in Vatican. It might be a transmission of Risalat al-huquq by his father, Imam Zayn al-'Abidin (a).
Abu l-Jarud Ziyad b. Mundhir (the first half of the 2nd/8th century), the founder of the Jarudiyya sect, also wrote Asl (principle) and Tafsir (exegesis of the Qur'an) which mostly consist of hadiths he transmitted from Imam al-Baqir (a). It was more commonly consulted by the Imamiyya than Zaydiyya. Sabah b. Bashir b. Yahya al-Muqri was another Zaydi student of Imam al-Baqir (a) and Imam al-Sadiq (a) who is known as a transmitter of their hadiths.
Al-Usul al-arba'ami'a (the four hundred principles) refers to 400 collections of hadiths written by early transmitters of hadiths. They directly wrote hadiths they heard from the Imams (a). These principles were sources of later collections of hadiths.
Compilation of Shiite Collections of Hadiths
The 4th/10th and 5th/11th centuries were periods of the development of the Shiite hadith. Earlier books were replaced by various hadith collections, such as the Four Books, Nahj al-balagha, Basa'ir al-darajat, Tuhaf al-'uqul, and the like. Together with jurisprudential and exegetical books, they met the needs of scholars, and there were centuries of idleness in some fields, such as hadith, because of such a remarkable development.
However, since the 10th/16th century, particularly because of the dominance of the Akhbari approach on Shiite seminaries, prominent scholars of hadiths emerged and produced novel collections and works of hadiths. In this period, some early books were revived, new classifications and compilations of hadiths of the Four Books (with the elimination of their repetitions) were provided, and some "supplements" (Mustadrakat) were written. For example, al-Shaykh al-Hurr al-'Amili (d. 1104/1692) wrote Tafsil wasa'il al-Shi'a ila tehsil masa'il al-shari'a, known as Wasa'il al-Shi'a by classifying hadiths of the Four Books and collecting additional hadiths from neglected early sources (about 70 books). This book is undoubtedly a huge encyclopedia of jurisprudential hadiths and was consulted by Shiite jurisprudents ever since it was written.
Mulla Muhsin Fayd Kashani (d. 1091/1680) also tried to present the contents of the Four Books (by eliminating repeated hadiths) in one volume under Mafatih al-shari'a. He provided useful comments on some hadiths. With this book, there was no need to consult the Four Books.
'Allama Muhammad Baqir al-Majlisi (d. 1111/1699) spent a lot of money to gather neglected Shiite books of hadiths from different, distant areas. He organized these hadiths in his monumental encyclopedia, Bihar al-anwar al-jami'a li durar akhbar al-A'immat al-athar, simply known as Bihar al-anwar. It is the biggest collection of hadiths among the Shi'as and the Sunnis. It is indeed a collection of Quranic exegesis, hadiths, historical issues, kalam, and the like. It provides data about the work of Sunni and Shiite scholars of hadiths, exegesis, jurisprudent, and history.
There were other scholars of hadiths in this period as well who wrote precious collections of hadiths, particularly exegetical hadiths, such as Sayyid Hashim al-Bahrani (d. 1109/1697), the author of al-Burhan fi tafsir al-Qur'an and 'Abd 'Ali Huwayzi (d. 1112/1700), the author of Tafsir nur al-thaqalayn.
Finally, Mirza Husayn al-Nuri tried to provide another great collection of Shiite hadiths by writing a supplement to Wasa'il al-Shi'a, known as Mustadrak wasa'il al-Shi'a. He collected many hadiths neglected by Wasa'il al-Shi'a, regardless of their reliability.
Thus, the later period was a period of classification, interpretation, and supplementation of early collections of hadiths.
The Software Collection of Nur al-Ahadith
Nur al-Ahadith is a software product of Computer Research Center of Islamic Sciences which contains full texts of 427 books within 1142 volumes. They include Shiite sources of hadiths together with their Persian translations and expositions, which can be accessed from the main text, searching through roots of the words, simple and advanced searches in the texts, simplification of the searching environment (combinatorial real-time searching, patterns and roots), access to the exegesis of Quranic verses within the hadiths, important information about the books, authors, and manuscripts of the texts, saving defined domains by the user in the screen, searching Quranic verses in the texts, and full texts of ten Arabic and Persian dictionaries in 62 volumes with searching options. It is one of the most complete digital libraries of hadiths.
The Software Collection of Maktaba Ahl al-Bayt
The software of Maktaba Ahl al-Bayt is also an electronic library. Its new version includes over 7000 volumes of books from all Islamic denominations concerning hadiths, exegeses of the Qur'an, usul al-fiqh, beliefs, history, and biographies of the Prophet (s) and the Imams (a). Its library is richer than that of the Jami' al-Ahadith software.
Hadith Writing among Sunni Muslims
An old controversy about hadiths was the permissibility of the writing and transmission of hadiths. Some of the Sahaba agreed with hadith writing and some of them opposed it. Thus, contradictory recommendations were quoted from the Prophet (s) in this regard.
Hadith Writing in the Period of the Prophet (s)
There are numerous pieces of evidence regarding oral reports of hadiths from the Prophet (s) in his period and the transmission of his remarks to people who were not present in his meetings. They show that the Prophet (s) generally agreed to the transmission of his hadiths.
However, some Sunni scholars of hadiths believe that in a period of his life, the Prophet (s) opposed the writing of his hadiths and prohibited his companions from doing so. The most important reason for this was a hadith transmitted by Abu Sa'id al-Khudri from the Prophet (s): "do not write from me anything except the Qur'an, and if someone has written something other than the Qur'an, they should destroy it".
However, it has been hard to believe that the Prophet (s) has ordered the destruction of his words which are expositions of the Qur'an and could prevent disagreements among his followers, while the Qur'an has ordered the writing of very trivial things such as financial transfers, debts, and payment dues by righteous scribers.
The Transmission and Writing of Hadiths in the Period of Caliphs
After the demise of the Prophet (s), some of his Sahaba opposed the writing and transmission of his hadiths. Leading opponents were the first two caliphs who prohibited the writing of hadiths under motivations such as the prevention of disputes among Muslims, fear of false attributions to the Prophet (s), the sufficiency of the Qur'an for the guidance of Muslims, and the fear that people would turn away from the Qur'an to hadiths. They thus burned many written hadiths of the Prophet (s).
There is evidence that 'Uthman b. 'Affan followed the same policy and emphasized that the only hadiths that could be transmitted were the ones which were transmitted in the periods of Abu Bakr b. Abi Quhafa or 'Umar b. al-Khattab. It seems that 'Umar was stricter with respect to the transmission and writing of hadiths than Abu Bakr.
According to Ibn Qutayba al-Dinawari, "'Umar violently reacted to people who transmitted many hadiths or had no other witnesses for their hadith". Thus, 'Umar was hard on some of the Prophet's (s) Sahaba, such as 'Abd Allah b. Mas'ud, Abu Darda', Abu Mas'ud al-Ansari as well as 'Abd Allah b. Hudhayfa, Abu Dhar, and 'Uqba b. 'Amir because of their transmissions of hadiths by keeping them in Medina.
Moreover, he recommended his agents and rulers to call people of their areas to concern themselves with the Qur'an and avoid the transmission of hadiths. He personally destroyed the written hadiths at his disposal.
According to some scholars, none of the above motivations for the prohibition of the transmission and writing of hadiths mentioned by the caliphs or prominent Sunni scholars are the real reasons for the prohibition of compiling hadiths. The real reason, they hold, is rooted in the political events which occurred after the demise of the Prophet (s), including the caliphate or succession of the Prophet (s) and the removal of Ahl al-Bayt (a) from the position of caliphate.
In other words, the main reason for the prohibition of the transmission and writing of hadiths was to destroy hadiths concerning the virtues of Ahl al-Bayt (a) and the vices of their opponents by the Prophet (s). This is why there was not much sensitivity regarding the transmission of jurisprudential hadiths from the Prophet (s).
Reactions of the Sahaba and Tabi'un to the policy of the caliphs were not similar. Some of them obeyed the policy of the prohibition and abandoned the transmission, and particularly, writing of hadiths; some of them memorized the hadiths, but refrained from compiling them or destroyed their written hadiths. Others resisted the policy and continued to transmit hadiths, including and in particular, Abu Dhar al-Ghifari. However, the policy of the prohibition of hadiths led to the destruction, distortion, or fabrication of many hadiths from the Prophet (s).
After the martyrdom of Imam 'Ali (a), the policy of the three caliphs regarding the prohibition of transmitting and writing hadiths was reinforced by Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan. Moreover, in this period, many hadiths were fabricated with regard to the virtues of the three caliphs and the reproach of 'Ali (a) at the command of Mu'awiya. According to historical evidence, a number of Sahaba and Tabi'un, including Abu Hurayra, 'Amr b. 'As, Mughira b. Shu'ba, and 'Urwa b. Zubayr were employed by Mu'awiya to fabricate such hadiths. Furthermore, some recent converts from the People of the Book, particularly Ka'b al-Ahbar and Tamim al-Dari, were left free to propagate and fabricate Isra'iliyyat to contaminate the Islamic culture.
Official Compilation of Hadiths among Sunni Muslims
In 99/717, 'Umar b. 'Abd al-'Aziz took over the position of caliphate. He issued an order to his agent in Medina to the effect that hadiths and the tradition of the Prophet (s) should be collected and written. Thus, the compilation of hadiths which was carried out in an unorganized way or as a matter of personal interest turned into an official project.
At first, the compilation of hadiths was slow and unorganized. Scholars of hadiths used to write hadiths and other materials in some collections without any particular structure. After the fall of Banu Umayya and the beginning of the Abbasid caliphate, there was a remarkable development in the compilation of hadiths, scholars in different cities began to write and compile hadiths, and throughout time, different works were produced.
At the stage of hadith selection, the scholars wrote short books in which they compiled hadiths which were reliable in accordance with their criteria. Al-Bukhari, Muslim and other Tabi'un had such an approach. Until the early 4th/10th century, the main Sunni collections of hadiths were compiled, which consist in:
Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim (these two collections are known as Sahihayn), Sunan Ibn Maja al-Qazwini, Sunan Abu Dawud al-Sijistani, Sunan al-Tirmidhi, and Sunan al-Nisa'i (these latter four collections are known as al-Sunan al-Arba'a). These six collections are known as al-Sihah al-Sitta.
Continuation of Compiling Hadiths after al-Sihah al-Sitta
In 4th/10th and 5th/11th centuries, hadiths which were neglected by earlier scholars were compiled in the form of new collections. Some well-known scholars in these two centuries include:
- Ya'qub b. Ishaq, known as Abu 'Awana al-Isfarayini (d. 316/928), the author of a "musnad" or a "sahih".
- Muhammad b. Habban b. Ahmad, known as Ibn Habban (d. 354/965), the author of al-Musnad al-Sahih or al-Anwa' wa l-taqasim.
- Abu l-Qasim Sulayman b. Ahmad al-Tabarani (d. 360/970), the author of three "mu'jams": al-Mu'jam al-kabir, al-Mu'jam al-awsat, and al-Mu'jam al-saghir.
- Abu l-Hasan 'Ali b. 'Umar, known as Dar Qutni, the author of Ilzamat, which is a supplement for "Sahihayn".
- Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah, known as al-Hakim al-Nishaburi (d. 405/1014), the author of al-Mustadrak 'ala l-Sahihayn.
- Abu Bakr Ahmad b. Husayn al-Khusrujirdi, known as al-Bayhaqi (d. 458/1065), the author of al-Sunan al-kubra and al-Sunan al-sughra (Islamic doctrines, general history, and hadiths).
- Al-Hakim al-Nishaburi wrote his al-Mustadrak 'ala l-Sahihayn as a supplement for Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim in accordance with their criteria for the reliability of hadiths (though they had not cited those hadiths for one reason or another).
- The 5th/11th century counts as the end of the period of hadith compilation by early Sunni Muslims. In this century, sources characterized as having chains of transmissions which connected the author to the Prophet (s) were no longer collected, and prominent scholars of hadith rejected any hadith which was not transmitted and cited by earlier scholars. For example, Ibn Salah (d. 624/1226) said that if someone brings a new hadith which is not transmitted by early scholars, his hadith will be rejected.
Compilation of Jawami' al-Hadith by Sunni Scholars in the Recent Period
The term, "Jawami'", refers to books of hadiths which are compiled and edited on the basis of the main collections of hadiths, including al-Sihah al-Sitta, al-Muwatta' by Malik, and Musnad by Ahmad b. Hanbal. These books can be classified into different groups: the ones that compile hadiths of Sahihayn, the ones that compiles hadiths of al-Sihah, al-Sunan, and Masanid (plural form of "Musnad"), and the ones that rest content with the compilation of jurisprudential hadiths.
- Al-Baghawi, the author of Masabih al-sunna, has collected hadiths of al-Sihah al-Sitta and al-Muwatta' by Malik b. Anas.
- Ahmad b. Zarin b. Mu'awiya (d. 535/1140), the author of al-Tajrid li l-sihah wa l-sunan, has only compiled reliable hadiths in al-Sihah al-Sitta, but instead of Sunan Ibn Maja, he has relied on al-Muwatta' by Malik b. Anas.
- Abu l-Sa'adat Majd al-Din Mubarak b. Abi l-Karam Muhammad, known as Ibn Athir al-Jazari (d. 606/1209), wrote Jami' al-usul min ahadith al-rasul.
- Abu l-Faraj 'Abd al-Rahman b. 'Ali al-Jawzi, known as Ibn al-Jawzi (d. 597/1200), wrote Jami' al-masanid wa l-alqab. In this book, he compiled hadiths of Sahihayn, Musnad of Ahmad b. Hanbal, and Jami' by al-Tirmidhi in the order of Masanid. The book was later reorganized by Muhibb al-Din al-Tabari (d. 694/1294).
- Isma'il b. 'Umar b. Kathir al-Dimashqi, known as Ibn Kathir al-Dimashqi (d. 744/1343) was the author of Jami' al-masanid wa l-sunan al-hadi li aqwam al-sunan. In this book, hadiths of al-Sihah al-Sitta, Musnad of Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad of Abu Bakr al-Bazzaz, Musnad of Abu Ya'la, and al-Mu'jam al-kabir by al-Tabarani are organized with the methodology of Masanid. The book used to contain about 100,000 hadiths which consisted of reliable, good, and unreliable hadiths, although the one available to us today has only 35,321 hadiths.
- 'Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Bakr, known as Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti, was the author of Jam' al-jawami' or al-Jami' al-kabir as well as al-Jami' al-saghir.
- 'Ala' al-Din 'Ali b. Hisam, known as al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, was the author of Kanz al-'ummal fi sunan al-aqwal wa l-af'al which is based on al-Suyuti's Jam' al-jawami'. However, hadiths in Kanz al-'ummal are alphabetically ordered and are organized in terms of jurisprudential issues. Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi reorganized the hadiths of al-Jami' al-saghir with the same methodology under Manhaj al-'ummal fi sunan al-aqwal.
- Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 3, p. 9, 175, 505; Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 6, p. 343; vol. 10, p. 346.
- Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 8, p. 163.
- Ṣaffār, Baṣāʾir al-darajāt, p. 165, 182; Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 6, p. 219.
- Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 7, p. 77.
- Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 7, p. 81, 94, 330.
- Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 217.
- Ṭūsī, , al-Fihrist, p. 112.
- Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 7, p. 330, 342, 343; Ṣadūq, Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh, vol. 4, p. 75-92; Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 10, p. 295-308.
- Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 7, p. 330; Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 10, p. 295.
- Ṣadūq, Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh, vol. 3, p. 4-18.
- Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 142.
- Ṣadūq, Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh, vol. 2, p. 618-626.
- Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 4-8.
- Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 8; Ṭūsī, al-Fihrist, p. 97.
- Ṭūsī, al-Fihrist, p. 98.
- Ibn Ghaḍāʾirī, Rijāl Ibn Ghaḍāʾirī, p. 61.
- Ibn Ghaḍāʾirī, Rijāl Ibn Ghaḍāʾirī, p. 119.
- Qur'an 2:282
- Dhahabī, Tadhkirat al-ḥuffāz, vol. 1, p. 3.
- Dhahabī, Tadhkirat al-ḥuffāz, vol. 1, p. 5.
- Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, vol. 1, p. 120.
- Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Jāmiʿ bayān al-ʿilm wa faḍlih, vol. 1, p. 64.
- Abū Rayya, Aḍwāʾ ʿala al-sunnat al-muḥammadiyya, p. 54.
- Ibn Qutayba al-Dīnawarī, Taʾwīl mukhtalaf al-ḥadīth, p.41.
- Abū Rayya, Aḍwāʾ ʿala al-sunnat al-muḥammadiyya, p. 54.
- Ḥusaynī Jalālī, Tadwīn al-sunna al-sharīfa, p. 437.
- Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 4, p. 204.
- Dhahabī, Tadhkirat al-ḥuffāz, vol.1, p. 5; Khaṭīb Baghdādī, Taqyīd al-ʿilm, p. 48-52.
- Shahristānī, Manʿ tadwīn al-ḥadīth, p. 17-39.
- ʿAskarī, Naqsh-i aʾimma dar Iḥyāʾ dīn, vol. 2, p. 64; Maʿrūf al-Ḥasanī, Dirāsāt fī al-ḥadīth wa al-muḥaddithūn, p. 22.
- Suyūṭī, Tadrīb al-rāwī, vol. 2, p. 61.
- Khaṭīb Baghdādī, Taqyīd al-ʿilm, p. 64-69.
- Dārmī, Sunan Dārmī, vol. 1, p. 128.
- Ḥusaynī Jalālī, Tadwīn al-sunna al-sharīfa, p. 481; Maʿārif, Tārīkh-i ʿumūmī-yi ḥadīth, hadith 151.
- Ḥusaynī Jalālī, Tadwīn al-sunna al-sharīfa, p. 274; Nayshābūrī, al-Ṣaḥīḥ, vol. 3, p. 1210.
- Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balagha, vol. 11, p. 44-46.
- Abū Rayya, Aḍwāʾ ʿala al-sunnat al-muḥammadiyya, p. 148.
- Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, vol. 1, p. 126.
- Ṣubḥī Ṣāliḥ, ʿUlūm al-ḥadīth wa muṣṭaliḥihi, p. 36.
- Suyūṭī, Tadrīb al-rāwī, p. 261; Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, Hady al-sārī, p. 6.
- Abū Rayya, Aḍwāʾ ʿala al-sunnat al-muḥammadiyya, p. 267-268.
- Ibn Ṣalāḥ, Maʿrifat anwāʿ ʿilm al-ḥadīth, p. 108.
- Maʿārif, Tārīkh-i ʿumūmī-yi ḥadīth, p. 166-174; Abū Zahū, al-Ḥadīth wa al-muḥaddithūn, p. 430-447.
- Abū Zahū, al-Ḥadīth wa al-muḥaddithūn, p. 431.
- Katānī, al-Risāla al-mustaṭrifa, p. 142.
- Abū Zahū, al-Ḥadīth wa al-muḥaddithūn, p. 431; Katānī, al-Risāla al-mustaṭrifa, p. 132.
- Katānī, al-Risāla al-mustaṭrifa, p. 131.
- Abū Zahū, al-Ḥadīth wa al-muḥaddithūn, p. 446.
- Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn. Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn. Najaf: 1385 AH.
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