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Al-Haram al-Makki

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Al-Haram al-Makki, the most important haram for Muslims; the green line shows the boundaries of al-Haram al-Makki

Al-Ḥaram al-Makkī (Arabic: الحرم المکي; literally meaning: the holy site of Mecca) is the most important haram of Muslims located in Arabia, which has special rulings in shari'a. The area is called "the safe sanctuary" in Qur'an. Al-Masjid al-Haram and Ka'aba are located inside the area.

Expanse

Aerial view of Al-Masjid al-Haram

The expanse of Haram has been fixed and known since the dawn of time, therefore, there are very few narrations about it. According to one of these narrations, the length and width of Haram are one Barid (In Arabia, a unit of distance equals four Farsakhs, and about 21.5 kilometers). Al-Masjid al-Haram is located at the center of Haram.[1] Based on historical reports, Prophet Abraham (a) was the first one who marked the expanse of al-Haram al-Makki with the help of Gabriel, and according to the revelation he received.[2] In hadith and historical texts, the marks which indicate the expanse of al-Haram al-Makki are called A'lam, Ansab, Manar, Ma'alim, Azlam, or Amyal of Haram.[3]

After Abraham (a), Isma'il (a) reconstructed the indicators of Haram. In Age of Ignorance, 'Adnan b. Udad and Qusay b. Kilab did the same at their own times. Quraysh rebuilt the indicators of Haram at the beginning of the Prophet's (s) mission. Eight years later, after conquering Mecca, Tamim b. Asad al-Khuza'i and Aswad b. Khalaf al-Qurashi al-Zuhari repaired and rebuilt the indicators of Haram by the order of the Prophet (s). In next periods also by the order of Umar b. al-Khattab (in 17/638), Uthman b. Affan (in 26/646), Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan (ruled 41/661–60/679), Abd al-Malik b. Marwan (ruled 65/684–86/705), and al-Mahdi al-Abbasi (ruled 158/774–169/785), some people repaired and rebuilt the indicators of Haram.[4] After al-Mahdi al-Abbasi, the signs which were on mountains were not repaired anymore and only those which were on the routes entering Mecca which were routes from Medina, Yemen, Iraq, Ta'if and Ju'rana, and Jeddah were repaired.[5]

In next periods, some others repaired or reconstructed the indicators of Haram such as al-Radi al-Abbasi in 325/936, Muzaffar b. Abu Bakr, the Ayyubid king in 616/1219, Malik Muzaffar Yusuf b. Umar, the ruler of Yemen in 683/1284, the Circassian Qaitbay Mahmudi of Egypt in 874/1469, the Ottoman king Ahmad Khan I in 1023/1614, Sharif Zayd b. Muhsin, the ruler of Mecca in 1037/1627, and the Ottoman Sultan Abd al-Majid I in 1262/1845.[6]

Reconstruction of the indicators continued during the rule of Al Sa'ud. In 1343/1924, Abd al-Aziz, the founder of al-Sa'udi kingdom repaired and reconstructed two indicators on the route of Jeddah and after him his son Sa'ud repaired and reconstructed two indicators in Shamisi region in 1376/1957, two indicators on the route of Ta'if in 1377/1957 and some indicators on the route of Arafa in 1383/1963. Also, Khalid b. Abd al-Aziz reconstructed two signs on the route of Ta'if and two signs on the old route of Jeddah and Fahd b. Abd al-Aziz constructed two new signs in 1404/1983 in the region of Tan'im.[7] In 1380/1960, 1384/1964 and 1400/1979, some groups of scholars studied the indicators of Haram.[8]

History

Except for the hadith quoted from the Prophet (s) in which Abraham (a) is considered the one who made Mecca a haram, some exegetes believe that before Abraham (a), Mecca was the same as other lands, but after beginning of his mission as a prophet and when he prayed to God for Mecca to be a safe land,[9] it became holy. Some others have considered it possible that the holiness of Mecca didn't start with Abraham's (a) prayer, but it was revived after a period of ignorance.[10] It's been also said that observing its holiness became obligatory after Abraham's (a) prayer.[11]

Before Islam, "Haram" of Mecca was known for Arabs and they avoided war, wounding and revenge in that area to observe its holiness and follow the tradition of Abraham (a) and Isma'il (a) and thus, they called Mecca, Bacca (where breaks the neck of oppressors), Bassasa (a place where repels mischief makers and disbelievers) and Silah (a safe place).[12] Some Arabs used to take their clothes off when entering al-Haram al-Makki believing that they have sinned in their clothes. Also, some Jews used to draw their shoes as a symbol of respect to Haram. Also, it's been said that Companions of Jesus (s) walked on feet when arriving in Haram as a sign of respect.[13]

The holiness of Haram continued to be observed after Islam. For example, Companions of the Prophet (s) avoided committing any sins in Haram and prohibited each other from harassing or annoying others and even avoided staying there long for the fear of being disrespectful.[14]

In the Qur'an

The word "Haram" is used in some verses of the Qur'an. Exegetes have suggested that "al-Haram al-Makki" is meant by the word "haram" most of the time in the Qur'an.[15] They have also said that al-Masjid al-Haram, Maqam Ibrahim (a), Ka'ba, and Mecca sometimes refer to the whole area of Haram.[16]

Safe Haram of God

In different verses of the Qur'an, the land or Haram of Mecca have been called "Safe", as it's written in Qur'an 29: 67:

In some verses, Prophet Abraham (a) prayed that God makes Mecca a safe place:

In the Qur'an 2: 125 the attribute "safe" is given to "al-Bayt" which has been interpreted by some exegetes as al-Haram al-Makki. There are different hadiths and interpretations about the attribute of "safety" that is mentioned in the Qur'an. Some exegetes have considered that the Qur'an talks about an objective reality which indicates that safety exists in the geographical area of Haram. In other words, they believe that the place has been created by God in a way that it's safe from disasters and tribulations, both in this world and the hereafter.[17] In some hadiths, "safety of Haram" has been interpreted as the safety of animals for not being hunted by other animals or humans who enter that area. It can also mean the safety of people in Haram from murder, plunder, and tribulations in this world and the hereafter, etc.[18]

Some exegetes denied the external reality of safety for Haram, and have interpreted the safety only as a legislated safety referring to the order of God regarding the observation of Haram's holiness and its rulings; Because there is no difference between Haram and other lands in the case of events like war, flood, and earthquake which could endanger its safety.

Exegetes believe that legislation of rulings about Haram goes back to some previous religions, including the religion of Abraham (a).[19] There are also hadiths in which the safety of Haram has been defined by examples of legislated safety and its rulings such as the prohibition of hunting and disturbing animals' safety and the prohibition of administering the punishments for crimes committed outside of Haram.[20] Some exegetes have suggested that the Qur'an 2: 97 refers to the safety of refugees to Haram before Islam which was abrogated in Islam.[21] According to the Qur'an 28: 57, God has blessed Mecca with all the benefits of other lands.[22]

In Hadiths

In hadiths, in addition to the rulings specific to Haram, its features and ethics of attending there have also been mentioned. According to hadiths, the expanse of Haram goes beyond the top of seven skies and below the seven earths. Al-Haram al-Makki will remain Haram until the judgment day.[23] One who disrespects the holiness of Haram, would be cursed by God and all the prophets (a).[24] According to a hadith, the Prophet (s) has guaranteed his intercession for a pilgrim who dies in Haram.[25]

Rulings

Dhu l-Hulayfa, one of miqats that muslims wear ihram to enter the haram al-makki

In fiqh, there are specific rulings for al-Haram al-Makki which are sometimes called "Khasa'is al-Haram". Some references call prohibiting rulings of Haram, "Mahzurat al-Haram".[26] However, most faqihs have mentioned these specific rulings only among other topics such as prayer, hajj, punishments, and kaffara. Some of the most important rulings specific to al-Haram al-Makki are as follows:

  • Prohibition of residence in Haram for non-Muslims according to all faqihs, and also prohibition of their entrance to Haram according to all faqihs except Abu Hanifa.[27]
  • Obligation of putting on Ihram for those Muslims who come to Mecca any time in the year from any of the Miqats, except for those who come frequently to these places such as drivers. Shafi'is regard putting on Ihram as recommended.[28]
  • Prohibition of killing animals in Haram except for domestic animals (such as camel, cow, and sheep) and dangerous animals (such as scorpions and snakes).[29]
  • Prohibition of hunting animals or guiding hunters and damaging plants in the area of Haram due to verses[30] and narrations.[31] However, religious authorities of different denominations have excluded some cases such as palm trees, vegetables, Idhkhir (lemongrass), and anything people plant or grow.[32]
  • Prohibition of eating meat of an animal which is illegitimately killed in the area of Haram.[33]
  • Prohibition of engaging in wars and wounding in the expanse of Haram[34] and also prohibition of carrying weapons according to some religious authorities.[35]
  • Prohibition of moving grits and stones from the area of Haram according to some Shi'a and Sunni faqihs.[36] Most Shafi'is have considered it disliked to enter dust or stones from hill (outside Haram) to Haram.[37]
  • Prohibition or reprehension of picking any left or lost object in the area of Haram.[38]
  • Prohibition of performing punishment or retribution for someone who has committed a crime outside Haram and has taken refuge in Haram[39] and to apply some limitations for him, for example, by forbidding others to give him any food or to make any business with him, in order to force him go out of Haram so the punishment on him would be possible there. However, According to Hanafis and Shi'a, someone who commits a crime in Haram cannot benefit from this privilege, because he has disrespected Haram's holiness.[40]
  • Increase of Diya in case of intentional or unintentional murder taken place in Haram, which is one third more than a complete Diya.[41]
  • Prohibition of burying non-Muslims in the area of Haram. Shafi'is consider it obligatory to move the body of non-Muslims out of Haram.[42]
  • Prohibition of selling, buying or renting houses in Haram in general or during hajj according to some religious authorities with reference to the verse twenty five of the sura al-Hajj and some narrations.[43]

Kaffara for Committing Some Forbidden Acts

Based on some hadiths, most faqihs believe that to commit certain forbidden acts in Haram, bears the penalty of paying Kaffara. However, the amount of Kaffara has been disputed about among jurists. Some Sunni authorities have only considered it forbidden and have not agreed with the necessity of paying Kaffara. In addition to religious prohibitions for those who enter Haram, there are also specific rulings for those who go for Hajj or Umra and put on Ihram.

Duplication of Punishments and Rewards

According to some narrations, the punishments for sins and the rewards for good deeds are multiplied in Haram due to its holiness. Even the intention of committing sins in Haram, without doing it, will be questioned by God. Instead, some good acts and worships such as reciting the Qur'an, performing prayers and fasting in Haram are recommended by hadiths, and according to narrations these acts would be rewarded by God 100 thousands times more than the rewards for doing the same acts in other places.[44] With reference to narrations, religious authorities have regarded these acts recommended:

  • To enter Haram walking on bare feet
  • Performing ritual bath (ghusl)
  • Making wudu' before entering Haram and after leaving it
  • Making the breath smell well and reciting certain supplications
  • Burying Muslims in Haram is also recommended[45]

Neighboring al-Haram al-Makki

According to most Shi'a, Maliki and Hanafi religious authorities, living in and neighboring Mecca is disliked due to people's lack of faith and failure in observing the rulings of Haram. Shafi'is and Hanbalis have regarded it recommended for one to neighbor Haram if they are not likely to commit any forbidden acts there.[46]

Disliked (Makruh) Acts

Some disliked acts are as follows:

  • Asking someone to pay his debt back, unless the debt is taken place in Haram
  • Requesting others for anything
  • Reciting poems
  • Hitting the servant[47]

See also

Notes

  1. Al-Hurr al-'Amili. Wasa'il al-Shi'a. vol. 12. P. 555
  2. Al-Azraqi, Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah. Akhbar Makka wa ma ja'a fiha min al-athar. vol. 2. p. 128; Al-Fakihi, Muhammad b. Ishaq. Akhbar Makka fi qadim al-dahr wa hadithiha. vol. 2. p. 273-275; Al-Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub. al-Kafi. vol. 4. p. 195-197; Al-Tabari, Ahmad b. 'Abd Allah. al-Qira li-qasid umm al-qura. p. 652-653
  3. Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. al-Tibyan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. vol. 2. p. 173-174; Ibn Athir. al-Nihaya. under the words "علم" & "نور"; Ibn Manzur. Lisan al-'Arab. under the word "علم"; Al-Zubaydi, Muhammad b. Muhammad al-Murtada. Taj al-'arus. under the words "نصب" & "حرم"
  4. Al-Azraqi, Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah. Akhbar Makka wa ma ja'a fiha min al-athar. vol. 2. p. 128-130; Al-Asqalani, Ibn Hajar. al-Isaba fi tamyiz al-sahaba. vol. 1. p. 72, 367
  5. Ibn Dihish, Abd al-Malik b. Abd Allah. al-Haram al-Makki al-sharif wa l-a'lam al-muhitat bih. p. 51-52
  6. Al-Fasi, Muhammad b. Ahmad. Shifa' al-gharam bi-akhbar al-balad al-haram. vol. 1. p. 107; Ibn Fahd, 'Umar b. Muhammad. Inhaf al-wura bi-akhbar umm al-qura. vol. 2. p. 386 & vol. 3. p. 117; Ibn Dihish, 'Abd al-Malik b. Abd Allah. al-Haram al-Makki al-sharif wa l-a'lam al-muhitat bih. p. 52-55
  7. Al-Kurdi, Muhammad Tahir. al-Tarikh al-qawim li-Makka wa bayt Allah al-karim. vol. 1. p. 100-101; Ibn Dihish, 'Abd al-Malik b. 'Abd Allah. al-Haram al-Makki al-sharif wa l-a'lam al-muhitat bih. p. 56-62
  8. Ibn Dihish, Abd al-Malik b. 'Abd Allah. al-Haram al-Makki al-sharif wa l-a'lam al-muhitat bih. p. 63
  9. Quran 2:126; Quran 14:35
  10. Al-Tabari, Muhammad b. Jarir. Jami' al-bayan. vol. 1. p. 542; Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. Hasan. al-tibyan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. vol. 1. p. 456
  11. Al-Tabari, Muhammad b. Jarir. Jami' al-bayan. vol. 1; Al-Fasi, Muhammad b. Ahmad. Shifa' al-gharam bi-akhbar al-balad al-haram. vol. 1. p. 139; Al-Asadi al-Makki, Ahmad b. Muhammad. Ikhbar al-kiram bi-akhbar al-masjid al-haram. p. 183
  12. Ibn Hisham. al-Sira al-nabawiyya. p. 114; Al-Mawardi, 'Ali b. Muhammad. al-Ahkam al-sultaniyya wa al-wilayat al-diniyya. p. 246-248; Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. al-Tibyan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. vol. 4. p. 32; Ibn Jawzi. al-Muntazam fi tarikh al-muluk wa al-umam. vol. 2. p. 31
  13. Al-Fakihi, Muhammad b. Ishaq. Akhbar Makka fi qadim al-dahr wa hadithiha. vol. 2. p. 267; Al-Tabari, Ahmad b. 'Abd Allah. al-Qira li-qasid umm al-qura. p. 169; Al-Fasi, Muhammad b. Ahmad. Shifa' al-gharam bi-akhbar al-balad al-haram. vol. 1. p. 140
  14. Al-Fakihi, Muhammad b. Ishaq. Akhbar Makka fi qadim al-dahr wa hadithiha. vol. 2. p. 259-305
  15. Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. al-Tibyan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. vol. 8. p. 165; Al-Qurtubi, Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Ansari. al-Jami' li-ahkam al-Qur'an. vol. 13. p. 264; Tabataba'i, Muhammad Husayn. al-Mizan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. vol. 6. p. 271
  16. Al-Jassas, Ahmad b. 'Ali. Ahkam al-Qur'an. vol. 1. p. 88 & vol. 3. p. 253, 317; Al-Sharif al-Radi. Haqa'iq al-ta'wil fi mutashabih al-tanzil. p. 180; Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. al-Tibyan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. vol. 6. p. 446 & vol. 8. p. 165; Al-Zarkishi, Muhammad b. Bahadur. al-Burhan fi 'ulum al-Qur'an. vol. 2. p. 266; Tabataba'i, Muhammad Husayn. al-Mizan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. vol. 3. p. 31
  17. Al-Sharif al-Radi. Haqa'iq al-ta'wil fi mutashabih al-tanzil. p. 182, 190; Al-Tabrisi, al-Fadl b. al-Hasan. Majma' al-Bayan fi Tafsir al-Qur'an. vol. 2. P. 799; Al-Qurtubi, Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Ansari. al-Jami' li-ahkam al-Qur'an. vol. 4. P. 141-142
  18. Al-Fakihi, Muhammad b. Ishaq. Akhbar Makka fi qadim al-dahr wa hadithiha. vol. 2. P. 252; Al-Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub. al-Kafi. vol. 4. P. 226, 528-530; Al-Hurr al-'Amili. Wasa'il al-Shi'a. vol. 3. P. 35
  19. Al-Jassas, Ahmad b. 'Ali. Ahkam al-Qur'an. vol. 1. p. 88-89, vol. 2 . p. 27; Al-Sharif al-Radi. Haqa'iq al-ta'wil fi mutashabih al-tanzil. p. 65, 192; Al-Qurtubi, Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Ansari. al-Jami' li-ahkam al-Qur'an. vol. 4. p. 140; Tabataba'i, Muhammad Husayn. al-Mizan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. vol. 6. p. 271
  20. Al-Azraqi, Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah. Akhbar Makka wa ma ja'a fiha min al-athar. vol. 3. p. 138-139; Al-Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub. al-Kafi . vol. 4. p. 226-227; Al-Saduq, Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Babawayh. Man la yahduruh al-faqih. vol. 2. p. 262; Al-Hurr al-'Amili. Wasa'il al-Shi'a. vol. 13. p. 75, 226
  21. Al-Tabari, Muhammad b. Jarir. Jami' al-bayan. vol. 4. p. 11-12; Al-Sharif al-Radi. Haqa'iq al-ta'wil fi mutashabih al-tanzil. p. 178; Al-Qurtubi, Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Ansari. al-Jami' li-ahkam al-Qur'an. vol. 2. p. 111, vol. 4. p. 140
  22. Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. al-Tibyan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. vol. 8. p. 165; Al-Qurtubi, Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Ansari. al-Jami' li-ahkam al-Qur'an. vol. 13. p. 300
  23. Al-Azraqi, Muhammad b. Abd Allah. Akhbar Makka wa ma ja'a fiha min al-athar. vol. 2 . p. 124; Al-Jassas, Ahmad b. 'Ali. Ahkam al-Qur'an. vol. 1 . p. 89; Al-Saduq, Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Babawayh. Man la yahduruh al-faqih. vol. 2. p. 245-246
  24. Al-Azraqi, Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah. Akhbar Makka wa ma ja'a fiha min al-athar. vol. 2 . p. 125
  25. Al-Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub. al-Kafi. vol. 4. p. 256; vol. 2. p. 258
  26. Al-Mawardi, 'Ali b. Muhammad. al-Ahkam al-sultaniyya wa al-wilayat al-diniyya. p. 259; Al-Kasani, Abu Bakr b. Mas'ud. Badayi' al-sanaye' fi tartib al-sharayi'. vol. 2. p. 446; Ibn Zuhayr. al-Jami' al-latif fi fadl Makka. p. 169; Naraqi, Ahmad b. Muhammad Mahdi. Mustanad al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shari'a. vol. 13. p. 297
  27. Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. al-Tibyan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. vol. 5. p. 200; Al-Zuhayli, Wahaba Mustafa. al-Fiqh al-Islami wa adillata. vol. 3. p. 329
  28. Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. al-Mabsut fi fiqh al-imamiyya. vol. 1. p. 355; Al-Tabari, Ahmad b. 'Abd Allah. al-Qira li-qasid umm al-qura. p. 641; Al-Khatib al-Sharbini, Muhammad b. Ahmad. Mughni al-muhtaj ila ma'rifat ma'ani alfaz al-minhaj. vol. 1. p. 476
  29. Al-Sharif al-Radi. Haqa'iq al-ta'wil fi mutashabih al-tanzil. p. 182; Al-Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf. Tadhkirat al-fuqaha. vol. 7. p. 272-273, 277-278; Al-Zuhayli, Wahaba Mustafa. al-Fiqh al-Islami wa adillata. vol. 3. p. 328-329
  30. Qur'an 5: 96
  31. Al-Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub. al-Kafi. vol. 12. p. 552-557
  32. Al-Kasani, Abu Bakr b. Mas'ud. Badayi' al-sanaye' fi tartib al-sharayi'. vol. 2. p. 446, 450-452; Al-Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf. Tadhkirat al-fuqaha. vol. 7. p. 271, 282, 363-369; Al-Zuhayli, Wahaba Mustafa. al-Fiqh al-Islami wa adillata. vol. 3. p. 328
  33. Al-Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf. Tadhkirat al-fuqaha. vol. 7. p. 290; Al-Dasuqi, Muhammad b. Ahmad. Hashiyat al-Dasuqi 'ala al-sharh al-kabir. vol. 2. p. 78
  34. Al-Mawardi, 'Ali b. Muhammad. al-Ahkam al-sultaniyya wa al-wilayat al-diniyya. p. 260; Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. al-Mabsut fi fiqh al-imamiyya. vol. 2. p. 3
  35. Al-Nawawi, Yahya b. Sharaf. al-Majmu' sharh al-muhadhdhab. vol. 7. p. 471; Kashif al-Ghita, Ja'far b. Khizr. Kashf al-ghita 'an mubhamat al-shari'at al-ghara . vol. 2. p. 456
  36. Al-Kasani, Abu Bakr b. Mas'ud. Badayi' al-sanaye' fi tartib al-sharayi'. vol. 2. p. 453; Al-Shahid al-Awwal, Muhammad b. Makki. al-Durus al-shar'iyya fi fiqh al-imamiyya. vol. 1. p. 473
  37. Al-Fasi, Muhammad b. Ahmad. Shifa' al-gharam bi-akhbar al-balad al-haram. vol. 1. p. 138
  38. Al-Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf. Tadhkirat al-fuqaha. vol. 8. p. 442; Al-Hurr al-'Amili. Wasa'il al-Shi'a. vol. 13. p. 259-262; Al-Zuhayli, Wahaba Mustafa. al-Fiqh al-Islami wa adillata. vol. 3. p. 329
  39. Q 3: 97
  40. Al-Azraqi, Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah. Akhbar Makka wa ma ja'a fiha min al-athar. vol. 2. p. 139; Al-Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf. Tadhkirat al-fuqaha. vol. 8. p. 441-442; Ibn 'Abidin. Radd al-muhtar 'ala al-durr al-mukhtar. vol. 2. p. 256; Al-Khoei, Abu l-Qasim. Mabani takmilat al-minhaj. p. 184
  41. Al-Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub. al-Kafi. vol. 4. p. 139; Al-Zuhayli, Wahaba Mustafa. al-Fiqh al-Islami wa adillata. vol. 3. p. 329
  42. Al-Shafi'i, Muhammad b. Idris. al-Umm. vol. 4. p. 188; Al-Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf. Tadhkirat al-fuqaha. vol. 9. p. 337
  43. Al-Nawawi, Yahya b. Sharaf. al-Majmu' sharh al-muhadhdhab. vol. 9. p. 250; Ibn 'Abidin. Radd al-muhtar 'ala al-durr al-mukhtar. vol. 6. p. 711
  44. Al-Azraqi, Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah. Akhbar Makka wa ma ja'a fiha min al-athar. vol. 2. p. 132; Al-Fakihi, Muhammad b. Ishaq. Akhbar Makka fi qadim al-dahr wa hadithiha. vol. 2. p. 266; Al-Fasi, Muhammad b. Ahmad. Shifa' al-gharam bi-akhbar al-balad al-haram. vol. 1. p. 131-132
  45. Al-Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf. Tadhkirat al-fuqaha. vol. 8. p. 79; Al-Hurr al-'Amili. Wasa'il al-Shi'a. vol. 13. p. 195-198, 287
  46. Al-Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf. Tadhkirat al-fuqaha. vol. 8. p. 442-447; Ibn 'Abidin. Radd al-muhtar 'ala al-durr al-mukhtar. vol. 2. p. 187; Al-Zuhayli, Wahaba Mustafa. al-Fiqh al-Islami wa adillata. vol. 3. p. 322-323
  47. Al-Azraqi, Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah. Akhbar Makka wa ma ja'a fiha min al-athar. vol. 2. p. 137; Al-Saduq, Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Babawayh. al-Muqni'. p. 369-370; Al-Hurr al-'Amili. Wasa'il al-Shi'a. vol. 12. p. 564-565, vol. 13. p. 265, 555