Baba Rukn al-Din

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تصویری از مقبره بابا رکن الدین.jpg
The tomb of Baba Rukn al-Din Shirazi, Takht-i Fulad, Isfahan, Iran
Personal Information
Full Name Mas'ud b. 'Abd 'Allah Baydawi
Well-Known As Baba Rukn al-Din Shirazi
Death 769/1367-8
Burial Place Takht-i Fulad, Isfahan
Scholarly Information
Professors 'Abd al-Razzaq Kashani, Dawud Qiysari
Works Nusus al-khusus fi tarjimat al-fusus, Kashf al-durr fi nazm al-durr, ...

Mas'ūd b. ʿAbd Allah Bayḍawi* (Arabic: مسعود بن عبدالله بیضاوی) (d. 769/1367-8), famous as: Bābā Rūkn al-Dīn Shīrazī (Persian: بابا رکن الدین شیرازی) was a scholar and mystic in eighth/fourteenth century. His exact birth date is not known. He is originally from Beyza in the Fars province, Iran. The author of The history of Isfahan and Rey counted him as a member of Jabiri Ansari family.[1]

There is a disagreement over his denomination. Some presented him as a Shi'a and others regarded him as a Sunni. However, the inscriptions on his tombstone indicate that he was a Shi'a.

In terms of mystical inclination, he's been considered as a follower of Ibn al-'Arabi. Nusus al-khusus fi tarjimat al-fusus, which is a commentary on Ibn al-'Arabi's Fusus al-hikam, is his magnum opus.

Baba Rukn al-Din died in 769/1367-8 in Isfahan and was buried in Takht-i Fulad.

Biography

Baba Rukn al-Din is originally from Beyza in the province of Fars, Iran. His exact birthrate is not known and the author of the history of Isfahan and Rey counted him as a member of Jaberi Ansari family.[2]

From childhood, Baba Rukn al-Din had mystical and Sufi tendencies and after knowing about the affairs and traditions of mystics, he started his own spiritual journey as a wayfarer. He says: "from childhood, I could realize a meaning of the meanings and a level of the levels of tawhid from within."[3]

He first learned the theoretical mysticism and practical wayfaring from 'Abd al-Razzaq al-Kashani (d.736/1335-6). Then he educated under Dawud Qaysari (d.751/1350-1) and studied Fusus al-hikam. He also benefited from Nu'man Khwarizmi in comprehending the complicated parts of Fusus.[4] In Shiraz, he also attended the sessions of Amin Bilyani whom later Baba Rukn al-Din would admire and use the title al-Shaykh al-Mashayikh (the master of masters) for.[5]

Religious Affiliation

There is a disagreement over his sect. Some presented him as a Shi'a[6] and others regarded him as a Sunni.[7] However, the inscriptions on his tombstone indicate that he was a Shi'a. In terms of mystical inclination, specifically the belief in wahdat al-wujud, he's been considered as a follower of Ibn al-'Arabi.

Works

His scholarly works include:

  • Nusus al-khusus fi tarjimat al-fusus which is a commentary on Ibn al-'Arabi's Fusus al-hikam and apparently his magnum opus. This book has been published in 1359 sh/1980-1 in Tehran.
  • Kashf al-durr fi nazm al-durr; or the commentary on al-Ta'iya al-kubra by Ibn Farid. There is a manuscript of this book in the library of the Islamic Consultative Assembly of Iran.[8]
  • Kunuz al-rumuz fi 'ilm al-huruf[9]
  • Qalandariyya[10]
  • The introduction to Nusus al-khusus; which is an independent work in its own right due to its length.[11]

Demise

Baba Rukn al-Din died in Isfahan and was buried in Takht-i Fulad. According to the inscription at the entry to his tomb, he passed away in 769/1367-8.[12]

Tomb

His tomb In Isfahan has always been a location for meditation and dhikr by Sufis and Dervishs.[13] This tomb was built during Ilkhanid dynasty. It is located on the south bank of the Zayanderud and dates earlier than its surrounding graves. As a result of his fame, in the past and even after Safavid period, the whole graveyard was known as the cemetery of Baba Rukn al-Din and even the Bridge of Khwaju which is located in its route, was known as the bridge of Baba Rukn al-Din.[14]

Notes

  1. Jābirī Anṣārī, Tārīkh-i Iṣfahān wa Ray, p. 325-326.
  2. Jābirī Anṣārī, Tārīkh-i Iṣfahān wa Ray, p. 325-326.
  3. Bābā Rukn al-Dīn Shīrāzī, Nuṣūṣ al-khuṣūṣ fī tarjuma-yi al-fuṣūṣ, p. 4.
  4. Bābā Rukn al-Dīn Shīrāzī, Nuṣūṣ al-khuṣūṣ fī tarjuma-yi al-fuṣūṣ, p. 5, 233, 249.
  5. Bābā Rukn al-Dīn Shīrāzī, Nuṣūṣ al-khuṣūṣ fī tarjuma-yi al-fuṣūṣ, p. 222-223.
  6. Jābirī Anṣārī, Tārīkh-i Iṣfahān wa Ray, p. 325-326; Gazī Iṣfahānī, Tadhkirat al-qubūr, p. 43-44; Humāeī, Bābā Rukn al-Dīn Shīrāzī: Nuṣūṣ al-khuṣūṣ fī tarjuma-yi al-fuṣūṣ, p. 3-4.
  7. Gazī Iṣfahānī, Tadhkirat al-qubūr, p. 43-44; Humāeī, Bābā Rukn al-Dīn Shīrāzī: Nuṣūṣ al-khuṣūṣ fī tarjuma-yi al-fuṣūṣ, p. 10, 13, 14.
  8. Dānishpazhūh and Afshār, Nuskhahā-yi khaṭṭī kitābkhāna-yi markazī Dānishgāh-i Tehran, vol. 6, p. 516; Hājī Khalīfa, Kashf al-zunūn, vol. 1, p. 266; Baghdādī, 'Īḍāḥ al-maknūn, vol. 2, p. 361.
  9. Bābā Rukn al-Dīn Shīrāzī, Nuṣūṣ al-khuṣūṣ fī tarjuma-yi al-fuṣūṣ, p. 155.
  10. Iqbāl Āshtīyānī, Bābā Rukn al-Dīn wa maqbara-yi ū, p. 46.
  11. Bābā Rukn al-Dīn Shīrāzī, Nuṣūṣ al-khuṣūṣ fī tarjuma-yi al-fuṣūṣ, p. 7.
  12. Qummī, Hadyat al-aḥbāb, p. 102; Jābirī Anṣārī, Tārīkh-i Iṣfahān wa Ray, p. 325; Humāeī, Bābā Rukn al-Dīn Shīrāzī: Nuṣūṣ al-khuṣūṣ fī tarjuma-yi al-fuṣūṣ, p. 10; Iqbāl Āshtīyānī, Bābā Rukn al-Dīn wa maqbara-yi ū, p. 42; Āqā Buzurg al-Tihrānī, al-Dharīʿa, vol. 24, p. 180.
  13. Humāeī, Bābā Rukn al-Dīn Shīrāzī: Nuṣūṣ al-khuṣūṣ fī tarjuma-yi al-fuṣūṣ, p. 11; See: Dāʾirat al-maʿārif buzurg-i Islāmī, Bābā Rukn al-Dīn Shīrāzī, Maqbara (Tomb).
  14. Jean Chardin. Safarnāma. part Iṣfahān. p. 180; Mahdawī, Tadhkirat al-qubūr, p. 153.

References

  • Āqā Buzurg al-Tihrānī, Muḥammad Muḥsin. Al-Dharīʿa ilā taṣānīf al-shīʿa. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Bābā Rukn al-Dīn Shīrāzī, Masʿūd. Nuṣūṣ al-khuṣūṣ fī tarjuma-yi al-fuṣūṣ. Edited by Rajab ʿAlī Mazlūmī. Tehran: 1359 Sh.
  • Baghdādī, Ismaʿīl b. Muḥammad Amīn. 'Īḍāḥ al-maknūn. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Dānishpazhūh, Muḥammad Taqī and Afshār, Īraj. Nuskhahā-yi khaṭṭī kitābkhāna-yi markazī Dānishgāh-i Tehran. Tehran: 1348 Sh.
  • Gazī Iṣfahānī, ʿAbd al-Karīm. Tadhkirat al-qubūr. Edited by Nāṣir Bāqirī Bīdhindī. Qom: 1371 AH.
  • Hājī Khalīfa, Muṣṭafā b. ʿAbd Allāh. Kashf al-zunūn. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Humāeī, Jalāl al-Dīn. Bābā Rukn al-Dīn Shīrāzī: Nuṣūṣ al-khuṣūṣ fī tarjuma-yi al-fuṣūṣ. Tehran: 1359 Sh.
  • Iqbāl Āshtīyānī, ʿAbbās. Bābā Rukn al-Dīn wa maqbara-yi ū. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Yādigār, 1342 Sh.
  • Jābirī Anṣārī, Ḥasan. Tārīkh-i Iṣfahān wa Ray. Tehran: 1321 Sh.
  • Jean Chardin. Safarnāma. part Iṣfahān. Translated to Farsi by Ḥusayn ʿArīḍī. Tehran: 1362 Sh.
  • Mahdawī, Muṣliḥ al-Dīn. Tadhkirat al-qubūr. Iṣfahān: kitābkhāna-yi Thaqafī, ]n.d].
  • Qummī, Shaykh ʿAbbās. Hadyat al-aḥbāb. Tehran: 1362 Sh.