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Hadith al-Wisaya

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First Imam of Shi'a
'Ali (a)


Life
Event of GhadirLaylat al-MabitYawm al-DarSuccession of the Prophet (s)Timeline


Heritage
Nahj al-BalaghaGhurar al-hikamAl-Shiqshiqiyya SermonHoly Shrine


Excellences
Excellences of Ahl al-Bayt (a)Al-Wilaya VerseAhl al-Dhikr VerseUli l-Amr VerseAl-Tathir VerseAl-Mubahala VerseAl-Mawadda VerseAl-Sadiqin VerseHadith Madinat al-'IlmHadith al-ThaqalaynHadith al-RayatHadith al-SafinaHadith al-Kisa'Al-Ghadir SermonHadith al-ManzilaHadith Yawm al-DarHadith Sadd al-AbwabHadith al-Wisaya


Companions
'Ammar b. YasirMalik al-AshtarAbu Dhar al-Ghifari'Ubayd Allah b. Abi Rafi'Hujr b. 'Adiothers


Ḥadith of Wisāya (Arabic: حدیث الوصایة) is a hadith from the Prophet (s), in which Imam Ali (a) is introduced as the Wasi and caliph. This hadith is mentioned in different wordings in Shi'a and Sunni sources. One of the famous narrations of the hadith of Wisaya transmitted by Burayda b. Hasib from the Prophet (s) is, "for every prophet, there is a guardian and heir and surly Ali (a) is my guardian and heir".

Text

Hadith of Wisaya is mentioned in Shi'a and Sunni sources such as Fadail al-Sahaba by Ibn Hanbal,[1] Manaqib by Ibn al-Maghazili,[2] al-Mu'jam al-kabir by al-Tabarani,[3] Tarikh Madina Dimashq,[4] al-Manaqib by al-Khwarazmi,[5] al-Kamil by al-Gurgani,[6] Tadhkirat al-khawas,[7] Kifayat al-athar,[8] Man la yahduruh al-faqih,[9] Dala'il al-Imama,[10] al-Manaqib by Ibn Shahr Ashub,[11] and Bihar al-anwar.[12] 'Abd Allah b. Burayda narrated from the Prophet (s) saying that, "for every prophet, there is a guardian and heir and surly Ali (a) is my guardian and heir". In reply to Salman al-Farsi who asked the Prophet (s) about his guardian and caliph, the Prophet (s) said, "My guardian and heir and the one who will pay my debts and will fulfill my promises is Ali b. Abi Talib (a)."[13]

Also, based on a hadith transmitted by Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, once the Prophet (s) addressed Lady Fatima al-Zahra (a) that, "my guardian is the best of guardians and the most beloved among them before God and that is your husband."[14]

Content

Hadith of Wisaya is about the caliphate and vicegerency of Imam Ali (a). Shi'a scholars consider it among the arguments for the imamate of Ali b. Abi Talib (a). They interpret "wisaya" as "vicegerency" and believe that the Prophet (s) introduced Imam Ali (a) as his vicegerent in this hadith. But, some Sunni scholars say that in this hadith, "wisaya" does not mean caliphate, and the Prophet (a) has actually advised Ali (a) about his households.[15] They have been answered and criticized that here the Prophet (a) has mentioned Imam Ali (a) as his vicegerent in an absolute way and there is no evidence that he (s) limited "wisaya" to his family affairs. In the research version of al-Mu'jam al-kabir, Hamdi b. 'Abd al-Majid Salafi said that if the chain of the transmission for this hadith were correct, it would imply the issue of caliphate and vicegerency.[16]

Chain of Transmission

Hadith of Wisaya has been mentioned in Sunni sources with different chains of transmission, from Burayda,[17] Salman,[18] Abu Ayub al-Ansari and Anas b. Malik.[19] Sibt b. al-Jawzi (author of Tadhkirat al-khawas) transmitted the narration of Salman in two ways. He considers the chain of transmission mentioned by Ibn Hanbal's Fada'il al-sahaba correct.[20]

Some Sunni scholars such as Ibn al-Jawzi,[21] Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti[22] and al-Haythami[23] doubted in the chain of transmission of this hadith and did not accept it; while, some researchers have criticized these Sunni scholars.

Notes

  1. See: Sibṭ b. al-Jawzi, Tadhkirat al-khawāṣ, p. 48.
  2. Ibn al-Maghāzilī, Manāqib ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, p. 167.
  3. Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-kabīr, vol. 6, p. 221.
  4. Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh Madīna Dimashq, vol. 42, p. 392.
  5. Khawārazmī, al-Manāqib, p. 85.
  6. Jurjānī, al-Kāmil, vol. 4, p. 14.
  7. Sibṭ b. al-Jawzi, Tadhkirat al-khawāṣ, p. 48.
  8. Khazzāz al-Rāzī, Kifāyat al-athar, p. 80.
  9. Ṣadūq, Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh, vol. 4, p. 180.
  10. Ṭabari al-Saghīr, Dalā'il al-Imāma, p. 90.
  11. Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 2, p. 188; vol. 3, p. 66.
  12. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 38, p. 154-339.
  13. Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-kabīr, vol. 6, p. 221; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 38, p. 12.
  14. Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-awsaṭ, vol. 6, p. 327; Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh Madīna Dimashq, vol. 42, p. 130.
  15. Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-kabīr, vol. 6, p. 221.
  16. Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-kabīr, vol. 6, p. 221.
  17. Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh Madīna Dimashq, vol. 42, p. 392; Khawārazmī, al-Manāqib, p. 85; Jurjānī, al-Kāmil, vol. 4, p. 14.
  18. Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-kabīr, vol. 6, p. 221.
  19. Sibṭ b. al-Jawzi, Tadhkirat al-khawāṣ, p. 48.
  20. Sibṭ b. al-Jawzi, Tadhkirat al-khawāṣ, p. 48.
  21. Ibn al-Jawzi, al-Mawḍūʿāt, vol. 1, p. 376.
  22. Suyūtī, al-Āliʾ al-maṣnūʿa, vol. 1, p. 358.
  23. Haythamī, Majmaʿ l-zawāʾid, vol. 9, p. 165.

References

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  • Ibn al-Jawzi,. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAlī. Al-Mawḍūʿāt. Edited by ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Muḥammad ʿUthmān. Madina: al-Maktabat al-Salafīyya, 1386 AH.
  • Ibn al-Maghāzilī, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan. Manāqib ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib. Qom: Intishārāt-i Sibṭ al-Nabī, 1426 AH.
  • Ibn ʿAsākir, ʿAlī b. Ḥasan. Tārīkh Madīna Dimashq. Edited by ʿAlī Shīrī. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1415 AH.
  • Ibn Shahrāshūb, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib. Qom: ʿAllāma, 1379 AH.
  • Jurjānī, ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAdīy al-. Al-Kāmil fī ḍuʿafāʾ l-rijal. Edited by Mukhtār Ghazāwī. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1409 AH.
  • Khawārazmī, Al-Muwaffaq b. Aḥmad al-. Al-Manāqib. Edited by Mālik Maḥmūdī. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Nashr al-Islāmī, 1414 AH.
  • Khazzāz al-Rāzī, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad al-. Kifāyat al-athar fī l-naṣ ʿalā l-aʾimmat al-ithnā ʿashar. Edited by ʿAbd al-Laṭīf Ḥusaynī. Qom: Nashr-i Bīdār, 1401 AH.
  • Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār al-jāmiʿa li-durar akhbār al-aʾimmat al-aṭhār. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1403 AH.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar al-Ghaffārī. Qom: Jāmiʿat al-Mudarrisīn, 1413.
  • Sibṭ b. al-Jawzi, Yusuf b. Ḥisām. Tadhkirat al-khawāṣ. Qom: Manshūrāt al-Sharīf al-Raḍī, 1418 AH.
  • Suyūtī, ʿAbd al-Raḥman al-. Al-Āliʾ al-maṣnūʿa fī aḥādīth al-mawḍūʿa. Beirut: Dār al-Maʿrifa, n.d.
  • Ṭabarānī, Sulaymān b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Muʿjam al-awsaṭ. Edited by Qism al-Taḥqīq bi-Dār al-Ḥaramayn. Cairo: Dār al-Ḥaramayn li-l-Ṭibāʿa wa l-Nashr, 1415 AH.
  • Ṭabarānī, Sulaymān b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Muʿjam al-kabīr. Edited by ʿAbd al-Majid al-Salafī. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ l-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1404 AH.
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