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Haram (holy site)

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Al-Haram al-Makki, the most important haram for Muslims; the green line shows the boundaries of al-Haram al-Makki

Ḥaram (Arabic: حَرَم, Holy Site), is the area surrounding a holy place with a special holiness due to its association with an Islamic sacred concept and therefore is treated differently.

The most important haram for Muslims is al-Haram al-Makki in which Ka'ba and al-Masjid al-Haram are located. The next important haram is al-Haram al-Madani which houses the Prophet (s)'s burial place (al-Masjid al-Nabawi) and his house. These two are called al-Haramayn al-Sharifayn (the two sanctuaries) among Muslims.

In a broad sense of the term, haram is also used for the holy shrines of Imams (a) and even for the descendants of Imams (a). The terms al-haram al-'Alawi, al-haram al-Husayni are used in accordance with this broad meaning. Haram, among Shi'a, is used for the Masjid or building which is built around a tomb.

One of the especial rulings of al-Masjid al-Haram, the shrine of the Prophet (s), shrine of Imam al-Husayn, and Mosque of Kufa is that pilgrims coming from other places are allowed and even recommended to do their prayers in the complete form, even though travelers normally have to do their prayers in short form.

Literal Meaning

The Arabic word "حرم" (Haram) is derived from the root form "ح ر م" (ḥ r m). It means one's household or their residence that he protects from any harm. [1] In Islamic texts, this word is applied to the area surrounding the Islamic holy sites that entering and attending there requires observation of certain rules. For example, the words "Haram", "Haram َAllah" or "al-Haram al-Makki" usually refer to a specific area around Ka'ba. [2] Some believe that calling such an area "Haram", is because some acts are ḥarām (forbidden) in that area. [3]

Usage

Titles such as "Haram al-Rasul" or "al-Haram al-Nabawi" refer to the shrine of the Prophet (s) in Medina.

Also, the title "al-Haramayn al-Sharifayn" either refers to al-Masjid al-Haram and the shrine of the Prophet (s), respectively in Mecca and Medina, or the Shirne of Imam Ali (a) and Shrine of Imam al-Husayn, or the two holy sites of al-Aqsa Mosque in Bayt al-Maqdis and al-Haram al-Ibrahimi in al-Khalil.

It is to note that sometimes the word "Haram" is used more specifically for al-Masjid al-Haram or Masjid al-Nabawi; and sometimes used more generally for the two cities of Mecca and Medina. Also, this word frequently is used for the shrines of Shi'a Imams (a) such as al-Ha'ir al-Husayni which is a title for the shrine of Imam al-Husayn (a) and al-Haram al-Radawi which is the title for the Holy shrine of Imam al-Rida (a). [4]

Al-Haram al-Makki

Main article: Al-Haram al-Makki
Al-Ka'ba located at the center of al-Haram al-Makki in Hijaz

Al-Haram al-Makki is the most famous example of the word "Haram". People who belong to this area are called Hirmi (people of Haram) and those who enter this place and put on Ihram are called Muhrim. The area outside of Haram is called Hill. [5] Holiness of the Haram of Mecca has a very long history. According to a hadith by the Prophet (s), this area has become Haram since the creation of skies and the earth and according to another hadith, Dahw al-Ard (expansion of earth) began from the place of al-Haram al-Makki. [6]

History

Except for the hadith quoted from the Prophet (s) in which Abraham (a) is considered the one who made Mecca a Haram, some exegetes believe that before Abraham (a), Mecca was the same as other lands, but after beginning of his mission as a prophet and when he prayed to God for Mecca to be a safe land,[7] it became holy. Some others have considered it possible that the holiness of Mecca didn't start with Abraham's prayer, but it was revived after a period of ignorance. [8] It's been also said that observing its holiness became obligatory after Abraham's prayer. [9]

Before Islam, "Haram" of Mecca was known for Arabs and they avoided war, wounding and revenge in that area to observe its holiness and follow the tradition of Abraham (a) and Isma'il (s) and thus, they called Mecca, Bacca (where breaks the neck of oppressors), Bassasa (where repels mischief makers and disbelievers) and Silah (a safe place). [10] Some Arabs used to take their clothes off when entering al-Haram al-Makki believing that they have sinned in their clothes. Also some Jews used to draw their shoes as a symbol of respect to Haram. Also, it's been said that Companions of Jesus (s) walked on feet when arriving in Haram as a sign of respect. [11]

The holiness of Haram continued to be observed after Islam. For example, Companions of the Prophet (s) avoided committing any sins in Haram and prohibited each other from harassing or annoying others and even avoided staying there long for the fear of being disrespectful. [12]

In the Qur'an

The word "Haram" is used in some verses of the Qur'an. Exegetes have suggested that "al-Haram al-Makki" is meant by the word "Haram" most of the time in the Qur'an. [13] They have also said that al-Masjid al-Haram, Maqam Ibrahim, Ka'ba, and Mecca sometimes refer to the whole area of Haram. [14]

In different verses of the Qur'an, the land or Haram of Mecca have been called "Safe", as it's written in verse 67 of Sura al-'Ankabut:

In some verses, Prophet Abraham (a) prayed that God makes Mecca a safe place:

In the Qur'an (2:125) the attribute "safe" is given to "al-Bayt" which has been interpreted by some exegetes as al-Haram al-Makki. There are different hadiths and interpretations about the attribute of "safety" that is mentioned in the Qur'an. Some exegetes have considered that the Qur'an talks about an objective reality which indicates that safety exists in the geographical area of Haram. In other words, they believe that the place has been created by God in a way that it's safe from disasters and tribulations, both in this world and the hereafter. [15] In some hadiths, "safety of Haram" has been interpreted as the safety of animals for not being hunted by other animals or humans who enter that area. It can also mean the safety of people in Haram from murder, plunder, and tribulations in this world and the hereafter, etc. [16]

Some exegetes denied the external reality of safety for Haram, and have interpreted the safety only as a legislated safety referring to the order of God regarding the observation of Haram's holiness and its rulings; Because there is no difference between Haram and other lands in the case of events like war, flood, and earthquake which could endanger its safety.

Exegetes believe that legislation of rulings about Haram goes back to some previous religions including the religion of Abraham (a). [17] There are also hadiths in which the safety of Haram has been defined by examples of legislated safety and its rulings such as the prohibition of hunting and disturbing animals' safety and the prohibition of administering the punishments for crimes committed outside of Haram. [18] Some exegetes have suggested that the verse 97 of the sura Al 'Imran refers to the safety of refugees to Haram before Islam which was abrogated in Islam. [19] According to the verse 57 of the sura al-Qasas, God has blessed Mecca with all the benefits of other lands. [20]

In Hadiths

In hadiths, in addition to the rulings specific to Haram, its features and ethics of attending there have also been mentioned. According to hadiths, the expanse of Haram goes beyond the top of seven skies and below the seven earths. Al-Haram al-Makki will remain Haram until the Day of Judgment. [21] One who disrespects the holiness of Haram, would be cursed by God and all the prophets (a). [22] According to a hadith, the Prophet (s) has guaranteed his intercession for a Haji who dies in Haram. [23]

Expanse

Al-Masjid al-Haram

The expanse of Haram has been fixed and known since the dawn of time, therefore, there are very few narrations about it. According to one of these narrations, the length and width of Haram are one Barid (In Arabia, a unit of distance equals 4 Farsakhs, and about 21.5 kilometers). Al-Masjid al-Haram is located at the center of Haram. [24] Based on historical reports, Prophet Abraham (a) was the first one who marked the expanse of al-Haram al-Makki with the help of Gabriel, and according to the revelation he received. [25] In hadith and historical texts, the marks which indicate the expanse of al-Haram al-Makki are called A'lam, Ansab, Manar, Ma'alim, Azlam, or Amyal of Haram. [26]

After Abraham (a), Isma'il (a) reconstructed the indicators of Haram. In pre-Islam Age of Ignorance, 'Adnan b. Udad and Qusay b. Kilab did the same at their own times. Quraysh rebuilt the indicators of Haram at the beginning of the Prophet's (s) mission. Eight years later, after conquering Mecca, Tamim b. Asad al-Khuza'i and Aswad b. Khalaf al-Qurashi al-Zuhari repaired and rebuilt the indicators of Haram by the order of the Prophet (s). In next periods also by the order of 'Umar b. al-Khattab (in 17/638), 'Uthman b. 'Affan (in 26/646), Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan (ruled 41/661–60/679), 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwan (ruled 65/684–86/705), and al-Mahdi al-'Abbasi (ruled 158/774–169/785), some people repaired and rebuilt the indicators of Haram. [27] After al-Mahdi al-'Abbasi, the signs which were on mountains were not repaired anymore and only those which were on the routes entering Mecca which were routes from Medina, Yemen, Iraq, Ta'if and Ju'rana, and Jeddah were repaired. [28]

In next periods, some others repaired or reconstructed the indicators of Haram such as al-Radi al-'Abbasi in 325/936, Muzaffar b. Abu Bakr, the Ayyubid king in 616/1219, Malik Muzaffar Yusuf b. 'Umar, the ruler of Yemen in 683/1284, the Circassian Qaitbay Mahmudi of Egypt in 874/1469, the Ottoman king Ahmad Khan I in 1023/1614, Sharif Zayd b. Muhsin, the ruler of Mecca in 1037/1627, and the Ottoman Sultan 'Abd al-Majid I in 1262/1845. [29]

Reconstruction of the indicators continued during the rule of Al Sa'ud. In 1343/1924, 'Abd al-'Aziz, the founder of al-Sa'udi kingdom repaired and reconstructed two indicators on the route of Jeddah and after him his son Sa'ud repaired and reconstructed two indicators in Shamisi region in 1376/1957, two indicators on the route of Ta'if in 1377/1957 and some indicators on the route of 'Arafa in 1383/1963. Also, Khalid b. 'Abd al-'Aziz reconstructed two signs on the route of Ta'if and two signs on the old route of Jeddah and Fahd b. 'Abd al-'Aziz constructed two new signs in 1404/1983 in the region of Tan'im. [30] In 1380/1960, 1384/1964 and 1400/1979, some groups of scholars studied the indicators of Haram. [31]

Rulings

Dhu l-Hulayfa, one of miqats that muslims wear ihram to enter the haram al-makki

In fiqh, there are specific rulings for al-Haram al-Makki which are sometimes called "Khasa'is al-Haram". Some references call prohibiting rulings of Haram, "Mahzurat al-Haram". [32] However, most faqihs have mentioned these specific rulings only among other topics such as prayer, hajj, punishments, and atonements. Some of the most important rulings specific to al-Haram al-Makki are as follows:

  • Prohibition of residence in Haram for non-Muslims according to all faqihs, and also prohibition of their entrance to Haram according to all faqihs except Abu Hanifa. [33]
  • Obligation of putting on Ihram for those Muslims who come to Mecca any time in the year from any of the Miqats, except for those who come frequently to these places such as drivers. Shafi'is regard putting on Ihram as recommended. [34]
  • Prohibition of killing animals in Haram except for domestic animals (such as camel, cow, and sheep) and dangerous animals (such as scorpion and snake). [35]
  • Prohibition of hunting animals or guiding hunters and damaging plants in the area of Haram due to verses[36] and narrations. [37] However, religious authorities of different denominations have excluded some cases such as palm trees, vegetables, Idhkhir (lemongrass), and anything people plant or grow. [38]
  • Prohibition of eating meat of an animal which is illegitimately killed in the area of Haram. [39]
  • Prohibition of engaging in wars and wounding in the expanse of Haram[40] and also prohibition of carrying weapons according to some religious authorities. [41]
  • Prohibition of moving grits and stones from the area of Haram according to some Shi'a and Sunni faqihs. [42] Most Shafi'is have considered it disliked to enter dust or stones from Hill (outside Haram) to Haram. [43]
  • Prohibition or reprehension of picking any left or lost object in the area of Haram. [44]
  • Prohibition of performing punishment or retribution for someone who has committed a crime outside Haram and has taken refuge in Haram[45] and to apply some limitations for him, for example, by forbidding others to give him any food or to make any business with him, in order to force him go out of Haram so the punishment on him would be possible there. However, According to Hanafis and Shi'a, someone who commits a crime in Haram cannot benefit from this privilege, because he has disrespected Haram's holiness. [46]
  • Increase of Diya (atonement) in case of intentional or unintentional murder taken place in Haram, which is one third more than a complete Diya. [47]
  • Prohibition of burying non-Muslims in the area of Haram. Shafi'is consider it obligatory to move the body of non-Muslims out of Haram. [48]
  • Prohibition of selling, buying or renting houses in Haram in general or during hajj according to some religious authorities with reference to the verse 25 of the sura al-Hajj and some narrations. [49]

Kaffara for Committing Some Forbidden Acts

Based on some hadiths, most faqihs believe that to commit certain forbidden acts in Haram, bears the penalty of paying Kaffara (atonment). However, the amount of Kaffara has been disputed about between jurists. Some Sunni authorities have only considered it forbidden and have not agreed with the necessity of paying Kaffara. In addition to religious prohibitions for those who enter Haram, there are also specific rulings for those who go for Hajj or 'Umra and put on Ihram.

Duplication of Punishments and Rewards

According to some narrations, the punishments for sins and the rewards for good deeds are multiplied in Haram due to its holiness. Even the intention of committing sins in Haram, without doing it, will be questioned by God. Instead, some good acts and worships such as reciting the Qur'an, performing prayers and fasting in Haram are recommended by hadiths, and according to narrations these acts would be rewarded by God 100 thousands times more than the rewards for doing the same acts in other places. [50] With reference to narrations, religious authorities have regarded these acts recommended:

  • To enter Haram walking on bare feet
  • Performing ritual bath (ghusl)
  • Making Wudu before entering Haram and after leaving it
  • Making the breath smell well and reciting certain supplications
  • Burying Muslims in Haram is also recommended[51]

Neighboring al-Haram al-Makki

According to most Shi'a, Maliki and Hanafi religious authorities, living in and neighboring Mecca is disliked due to people's lack of faith and failure in observing the rulings of Haram. Shafi'is and Hanbalis have regarded it recommended for one to neighbor Haram if they are not likely to commit any forbidden acts there. [52]

Disliked (Makruh) Acts

Some disliked acts are as follows:

  • Asking someone to pay his debt back, unless the debt is taken place in Haram
  • Requesting others for anything
  • Reciting poems
  • Hitting the servant[53]

Al-Haram al-Nabawi

Main article: Al-Haram al-Nabawi
Al-Haram al-Nabawi in Medina

This is another important Haram for which there are special rulings according to hadiths and jurisprudential laws. According to a hadith, the noble Prophet (s) has guaranteed his intercession for the people of Medina on the Day of Judgment. [54] Hanafis do not consider Medina to hold a Haram with its specific rulings. [55] Some contemporary Shi'a authorities have also doubted about Medina to be considered a Haram the same way as Mecca. They interpret the famous hadith from the Prophet (s) which ascribes the Haram of Medina to himself and the Haram of Mecca to Abraham (a) referring only to the necessity of respecting this city and the Prophet's (s) holy grave. [56] However, Such faqihs have considered some rulings of Haram for Medina too. [57] Some Malikis and Shafi'is including Malik b. Anas refer to the mentioned hadith and as a new reason, added the fact that Medina has been the destination for Muhajirun and Ansar. He concluded that al-Haram al-Nabawi is more important than al-Haram al-Makki;[58] however, most religious authorities have regarded al-Haram al-Makki higher than Medina, other than the Prophet's (s) grave which has been introduced in hadiths as the best of all tombs in the world. [59]

Expanse

In some narrations, the expanse of al-Haram al-Nabawi has been defined as one Barid (In Arabia, a unit of distance which equals 4 farsakhs, and about 21.5 kilometers) to each of four directions. [60] According to another hadith, narrated by both Shi'a and Sunni, al-Haram al-Nabawi is located between two lands of black stones in the East and the West of Medina. [61] Shi'a Marja's have defined the expanse of al-Haram al-Nabawi from the mount 'Ayr ('Ayir) to the mount Wa'ir, according to a hadith. [62] But some Sunni authorities have referred to another hadith and have defined this expanse from the mount 'Ayr to the mount Thawr which is 12 "Mils" (12 mils equals 4 farsakhs, which is 21.5 kilometers). They have considered the mount 'Ayr in Miqat and Thawr behind the mount Uhud. [63] Regarding the location of the mount Thawr in Mecca, some others have interpreted the mentioned hadiths differently and considered it possible that narrators have mistaken the mount Thawr with the mount Uhud or maybe the previous name of Uhud has been Thawr. [64] It is also possible that the noble Prophet (s) actually meant the distance between the two mounts of 'Ayr and Thawr in Mecca or that the Prophet (s) figuratively called the two mountains around Medina 'Ayr and Thawr. [65]

Manners and Rulings

Most important manners and rulings of al-Haram al-Nabawi are:

  • Recommendation of performing ritual bath (ghusl) before entering
  • Recommendation of residing in Medina
  • Recommendation of fasting some days of the week
  • Prohibition of damaging plants and cutting trees specially saplings, except for animals' feeding.
  • Prohibition of hunting animals. [66]

Some earlier Sunni authorities have mentioned some punishments for one who doesn't observe the prohibitions in al-Haram al-Nabawi. [67]

Al-Haram al-Husayni

Holy shrine of Imam al-Husayn (a) in Karbala, Iraq

Haram (holy shrine) of Imam al-Husayn (a) is greatly venerated by Shi'a. Shi'a faqihs have different opinions about the expanse of the Haram for which there are certain rulings. For example, some of them include Imam al-Husayn's (a) grave and his family members and companions except al-'Abbas (a) in the Haram,[68] while some others believe that the whole city of Karbala including Imam al-Husayn's (a) holy Darih is Haram. [69] There is even a hadith quoted from Imam Ali (a) in which Kufa is also called his Haram. [70]

Specific Rulings

According to most Shi'a faqihs, one of the rulings specific to al-Haramayn (al-Haram al-Makki and al-Haram al-Nabawi), Masjid al-Kufa and al-Ha'ir al-Husayni is the permission and even recommendation of performing prayer in the complete form for pilgrims coming from other places (passengers), although as pilgrims, they normally have to perform their prayers in the short form (Salat al-Qasr). [71]

Religious authorities regard these rulings as the conclusion of two different groups of hadiths; one which indicates that performing prayer in short or complete form in the four mentioned places are optional. And the other group which recommends the complete form of prayer in these places. [72] In some of these hadiths, the terms "al-Haramayn al-Sharifayn", Mecca and Medina, "al-Masjidayn" (the two mosques) are used;[73] thus, some scholars consider only al-Masjid al-Haram and Masjid al-Nabawi the subject to the mentioned rulings, not the whole expanses of al-Haram al-Makki and al-Haram al-Nabawi. [74]

Ibn Babawayh believed in obligation of performing prayer in short form in the mentioned places and did not consider any higher value for them. [75] Apparently, his opinion is based on general reasons for the obligation of performing prayer in short form for passengers and the hadiths which have regarded it obligatory to perform prayer in short form in the mentioned places. [76] However, other faqihs have considered these hadiths as cases of Taqiyya[77] and referring to some other reasons, have rejected the mentioned conclusion. [78] There are also some other faqihs who have believed out of caution, in necessity of performing the short form of prayer in the mentioned Harams. [79]

Some earlier scholars including Ibn al-Junayd al-Iskafi and 'Alam al-Huda have considered it obligatory for passengers to perform their prayers in complete form in the four mentioned places and even Harams (the holy shrines) of all Imams (a) of Shi'a. [80] Ibn Idris al-Hilli have only added the shrine of Imam al-Husayn (a) to al-Haram al-Makki and al-Haram al-Nabawi for this ruling. Shi'a faqihs have also discussed whether the above mentioned optionality in choosing short or complete form of prayer is only about the Masjid al-Kufa and the shrine of Imam al-Husayn (a) or it also includes the two whole cities of Kufa and Karbala. [81] Hanafis, who considered it obligatory to perform the prayer in short form while travelling like Twelver Shi'a, have regarded performing the prayer in complete form in al-Haram al-Makki as following the noble Prophet (s). They have considered it better than performing the prayer in short form due to multiplicity of rewards for good deeds in Haram. [82]

Other Rulings and Manners

Other rulings and manners are mentioned for these Harams and holy shrines of Shi'a Imams (a) in Shi'a jurisprudential references, such as:

  • Prohibition of entering menstruating woman or Junub to these places[83]
  • Prohibition of making these places Najis (religiously unclean) and obligation of cleaning off them[84]
  • Recommendation of doing Ghusl (ritual bath) before entering these places and [[|Makruh|Kiraha]] of moving dead people elsewhere from these place to bury, unless to another of these places[85]
  • Prohibition of performing punishments or retributions in these Harams[86]

Notes

  1. Ibn Athir. al-Nihaya. under the word "دعمص"; Ibn Manzur. Lisan al-'Arab. under the word "حرم"; Al-Jabarti, 'Abd al-Rahman. Tarikh 'aja'ib al-athar. vol. 2. p. 143
  2. Al-Jawhari. al-Sihah. under the word "حرم"; Al-Zubaydi, Muhammad b. Muhammad al-Murtada. Taj al-'arus. under the word "حرم"
  3. Al-Kurdi, Muhammad Tahir. al-Tarikh al-qawim li-makka wa bayt Allah al-karim. vol. 1. p. 101; Burujirdi, Murtada. Mustanad al-'urwat al-wuthqa. vol. 8. p. 423
  4. Al-Bahrani, Yusuf b. Ahmad. al-Hada'iq al-nadira fi ahkam al-'itrat al-tahira. vol. 7. p. 317-318 & vol. 11. p. 455; Al-Baghdadi, Isma'il. Hadiyat al-'arifin. vol. 2. column. 541; Agha Buzurg, Tihrani. al-Dhari'a ila tasanif al-Shi'a. vol. 6. p. 194 & vol. 8. p. 224 & vol. 21. p. 299
  5. Al-Farahidi, Khalil b. Ahmad. Kitab al-'ayn. under the word "حرم"; Ibn Athir. al-Nihaya. under the word "حرم"
  6. Al-Al-Fakihi, Muhammad b. Ishaq. Akhbar Makka fi qadim al-dahr wa hadithiha. vol. 2. p. 270; Al-Saduq, Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Babawayh. Man la yahduruh al-faqih. vol. 2. p. 241; Al-Hurr al-'Amili. Wasa'il al-Shi'a. vol. 13. p. 241-242
  7. Q 2:126; Q 14:35
  8. Al-Tabari, Muhammad b. Jarir. Jami' al-bayan. vol. 1. p. 542; Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. Hasan. al-Tibyan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. vol. 1. p. 456
  9. Al-Tabari, Muhammad b. Jarir. Jami' al-bayan. vol. 1; Al-Fasi, Muhammad b. Ahmad. Shifa' al-gharam bi-akhbar al-balad al-haram. vol. 1. p. 139; Al-Asadi al-Makki, Ahmad b. Muhammad. Ikhbar al-kiram bi-akhbar al-masjid al-haram. p. 183
  10. Ibn Hisham. al-Sira al-nabawiyya. p. 114; Al-Mawardi, 'Ali b. Muhammad. al-Ahkam al-sultaniyya wa al-wilayat al-diniyya. p. 246-248; Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. al-Tibyan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. vol. 4. p. 32; Ibn Jawzi. al-Muntazam fi tarikh al-muluk wa al-umam. vol. 2. p. 31
  11. Al-Al-Fakihi, Muhammad b. Ishaq. Akhbar Makka fi qadim al-dahr wa hadithiha. vol. 2. p. 267; Al-Tabari, Ahmad b. 'Abd Allah. al-Qira li-qasid umm al-qura. p. 169; Al-Fasi, Muhammad b. Ahmad. Shifa' al-gharam bi-akhbar al-balad al-haram. vol. 1. p. 140
  12. Al-Al-Fakihi, Muhammad b. Ishaq. Akhbar Makka fi qadim al-dahr wa hadithiha. vol. 2. p. 259-305
  13. Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. al-Tibyan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. vol. 8. p. 165; Al-Qurtubi, Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Ansari. al-Jami' li-ahkam al-Qur'an. vol. 13. p. 264; Tabataba'i, Muhammad Husayn. al-Mizan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. vol. 6. p. 271
  14. Al-Jassas, Ahmad b. 'Ali. Ahkam al-Qur'an. vol. 1. p. 88 & vol. 3. p. 253, 317; Al-Sharif al-Radi. Haqa'iq al-ta'wil fi mutashabih al-tanzil. p. 180; Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. al-Tibyan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. vol. 6. p. 446 & vol. 8. p. 165; Al-Zarkishi, Muhammad b. Bahadur. al-Burhan fi 'ulum al-Qur'an. vol. 2. p. 266; Tabataba'i, Muhammad Husayn. al-Mizan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. vol. 3. p. 31
  15. Al-Sharif al-Radi. Haqa'iq al-ta'wil fi mutashabih al-tanzil. p. 182, 190; Al-Tabrisi, al-Fadl b. al-Hasan. Majma' al-Bayan fi Tafsir al-Qur'an. vol. 2. P. 799; Al-Qurtubi, Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Ansari. al-Jami' li-ahkam al-Qur'an. vol. 4. P. 141-142
  16. Al-Al-Fakihi, Muhammad b. Ishaq. Akhbar Makka fi qadim al-dahr wa hadithiha. vol. 2. P. 252; Al-Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub. al-Kafi. vol. 4. P. 226, 528-530; Al-Hurr al-'Amili. Wasa'il al-Shi'a. vol. 3. P. 35
  17. Al-Jassas, Ahmad b. 'Ali. Ahkam al-Qur'an. vol. 1. p. 88-89, vol. 2 . p. 27; Al-Sharif al-Radi. Haqa'iq al-ta'wil fi mutashabih al-tanzil. p. 65, 192; Al-Qurtubi, Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Ansari. al-Jami' li-ahkam al-Qur'an. vol. 4. p. 140; Tabataba'i, Muhammad Husayn. al-Mizan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. vol. 6. p. 271
  18. Al-Azraqi, Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah. Akhbar Makka wa ma ja'a fiha min al-athar. vol. 3. p. 138-139; Al-Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub. al-Kafi . vol. 4. p. 226-227; Al-Saduq, Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Babawayh. Man la yahduruh al-faqih. vol. 2. p. 262; Al-Hurr al-'Amili. Wasa'il al-Shi'a. vol. 13. p. 75, 226
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