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Foundational elements of Hajj (Arabic: أركان الحج, romanized: arkān al-ḥajj) are a part of hajj rituals, intentional abandoning of them invalidates hajj. Although, there are different views about some of them, jurists agree that ihram, tawaf (circumambulation), staying in Arafat, staying in Mash'ar al-Haram and running between Safa and Marwa are among the foundational elements of hajj.
Foundational Elements of Hajj
Agreed Upon Elements
There is a disagreement about the number of foundational elements of hajj; but, all Shi'a jurists believe that ihram, tawaf (circumambulation), staying in Arafat, staying in Mash'ar al-Haram and running between Safa and Marwa are among the foundational elements of hajj.
Elements about Which There is a Disagreement
There is a disagreement on whether some other hajj rituals are foundational elements or not. They are as below:
- Order: which is to observe the order in foundational elements of hajj or observing the order between tawaf and Sa'y.
Attributes of Foundational Elements of Hajj
There are two differences between foundational elements and other non-foundational elements of hajj:
1- Hajj becomes invalidated by intentionally abandoning any of the foundational elements; except the two acts of staying (staying in Arafat and Mash'ar) and unintentional abandoning of both of them invalidates hajj as well. But, abandoning non-foundational obligations in hajj, even if committed intentionally, does not invalidate hajj.
2- According to the views of some jurists, if the one performing hajj misses one foundational element, he can hire a proxy only if returning to Mecca is impossible or difficult for him; but, if he misses a non-foundational element, he can hire a proxy in order to make it up for him in any case.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from ارکان حج in Farsi WikiShia.