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Abu l-Futuh al-Razi

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Grave of Abu l-Futuh al-Razi.jpg
Personal Information
Full Name al-Husayn b. 'Ali b. Muhammad al-Khuza'i
Teknonym Abu l-Futuh
Epithet Jamal al-Din
Well-Known As Abu l-Futuh al-Razi
Lineage Khuza'a tribe
Well-Known Relatives Nafi' b. Budayl b. Warqa' al-Khuza'i
Birth c. 470/1078
Place of Birth Ray
Death 552/1157 or 556/1161
Burial Place Shrine of Hamza b. Musa b. Ja'far (a)
Scholarly Information
Professors 'Ali b. Muhammad al-Nisaburi al-Razi (father), 'Abd al-Rahman b. Ahmad al-Khuza'i, ...
Students Ibn Shahrashub, Muntajab al-Din al-Razi, Ibn Hamza al-Tusi
Works Rawd al-jinan wa rawh al-janan fi tafsir al-Qur'an

Abū l-Futūḥ Jamāl al-Dīn Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad al-Khuzāʾī al-Nīshābūrī al-Rāzī (Arabic: ابوالفتوح جمال‌الدین حسین بن علی بن محمد الخزاعى النیشابورى الرازى) (b. c. 470/1078 - d. 552/1157 or 556/1161) famous as Abu l-Futuh al-Razi was one of the greatest Shi'a exegetes and hadith scholars of 6/12 century. He is the author of an exegesis of the Qur'an titled Rawd al-jinan wa rawh al-janan.

Biography

Birth and Lineage

The exact date of his birth is unknown, but he was born around 470/1077 in the city of Ray. His lineage goes back to Khuza'a tribe and according to his own statement, his great-grandfather was Nafi' b. Budayl b. Warqa' al-Khuza'i, one of the companions of the Prophet (s).[1]

Family

According to al-Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin, his family had a special position among Shi'a scholars and they had fruitful writings and numerous books.[2] Qadi Nur Allah Shushtari said that Abu l-Futuh was from a glorious and virtuous family and his lineage goes back to Budayl b. Warqa' al-Khaza'i who was a close companion of the Prophet (s). Throughout history, Khuza'a tribe were among pure Shi'a of Ahl al-Bayt (a).[3]

Children

Great Scholars' Views about Him

Sayyid Muhammad Baqir Khwansari writes, "al-Husayn b. 'Ali al-Khuza'i, known as al-Shaykh Abu l-Futuh al-Razi is the author of the famous Persian Exegesis of the Qur'an and one of the well-known scholars in exegesis of the Qur'an and theology. He is one of the most knowledgeable scholars of Arabic literature and one of the greatest hadith scholars.[6]

Also Muhaddith Nuri says, "he was a teacher and leading scholar of exegesis and translation of the word of God. He was an erudite, a learned faqih, an exegete, and a man of literature who reached perfect degrees of knowledge."[7]

Teachers

Students

Works

Rawd al-jinan wa ruh al-janan, The most important book of Abu l-Futuh
  • Rawd al-jinan wa ruh al-janan; this book is the most famous work of Abu l-Futuh al-Razi.
  • Ruh al-ahbab wa ruh al-albab fi sharh al-shihab; this book is a commentary on "Shihab al-akhbar" which is written by al-Qadi al-Quda'i al-Shafi'i and it is about maxims, sermons, and allegories attributed to the Prophet(s).
  • Risalat Yuhanna; the book is as if quoted from a Christian character named Yuhanna and the book is about Imamate.
  • Tabsirat al-'awam fi ma'rifat maqalat al-anam; in the beginning of this book, Abu l-futuh criticizes the ideas of al-Husayn b. Mansur al-Hallaj In next chapters, he answers some questions about Shi'a beliefs and defends Shi'a.
  • Al-Risalat al-Husniyya; this book is about a discussion made by a girl named al-Husniyya who lived at the time of Harun al-Rashid. The book is in Persian and is against Sunni beliefs. It was frequently published with Hilyat al-muttaqin, book of al-Allamah al-Majlisi and also independently.
  • Minhaj al-manahij; this is a research about the four major schools in Islam and supporting Imamate.
  • Risala ijaza
  • Exegesis of the Qur'an in Arabic.[11]

Demise

It has been mentioned that he passed away in 552/1157 or 556/1161.[12] According to his will, his body was buried in the city of Ray, in the shrine of Hamza b. Musa b. Ja'far (a) and near the shrine of 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani.[13]

Notes

  1. Rāzī, Rawḍ al-Jinān, vol. 5, p. 148, under verse 25 of Quran 48.
  2. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 6, p. 124.
  3. Shūshtarī, Majālis al-muʾminīn, vol. 1, p. 490.
  4. Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, ʾAmal al-āmil, vol. 1, p. 58.
  5. Rāzī, al-Fihrist, p. 85.
  6. Khāwnsārī, Rawḍāt al-jannāt, vol. 2, p. 314.
  7. Nūrī, Khātima mustadrak al-wasāʾil, vol. 3, p. 72.
  8. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 6, p. 125.
  9. Rāzī, Rawḍ al-Jinān wa Rawḥ al-Janān fī Tafsīr al-Qurʾān, vol. 16, p. 170, under verse 80 of Quran 36.
  10. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 6, p. 125.
  11. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 6, p. 125 and 126.
  12. ʿArabzāda, Sharḥ ḥāl-i Abū l-Futūḥ al-Rāzī.
  13. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 6, p. 124.

References

  • Abū l-Futūḥ al-Rāzī, Ḥusayn b. 'Alī. Rawḍ al-Jinān wa Rawḥ al-Janān fī Tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Mashhad: Āstān-i Quds-i Raḍawī, [n.d].
  • Amīn, Sayyid Muḥsin al-. Aʿyān al-Shīʿa. Beirut: Dār al-Taʿāruf, 1414 AH.
  • ʿArabzāda, Abu l-Faḍl. Sharḥ ḥāl-i Abū l-Futūḥ al-Rāzī. Aʾyīna Pazhūhish, No, 94. Fall 1384.
  • Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. ʾAmal al-āmil. Baghdad: Maktabat al-Andalus, [n.d].
  • Khāwnsārī, Muḥammad Bāqir. Rawḍāt al-jannāt fī aḥwāl-i al-ʿulamāʾ wa al-sādāt. Qom: Intishārāt-i Ismāʿīlīyān, [n.d].
  • Nūrī, Mīrzā Ḥusayn al-. Khātima mustadrak al-wasāʾil. Qom: Muʾassisat Āl al-Bayt, 1415 AH.
  • Rāzī, Muntajab al-Dīn al-. Al-Fihrist. Qom: Intishārāt-i Marʿashī al-Najafī, 1366 Sh.
  • Shūshtarī, Nūr Allāh al-Ḥusaynī al-. Majālis al-muʾminīn. Tehran: Islāmīyya, 1377 Sh.