Hamza b. 'Ali b. Zuhra al-Halabi

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Hamza b. 'Ali b. Zuhra al-Halabi
Personal Information
Full Nameal-Sayyid Abu l-Makārim ʿIzz al-Dīn Hamzat b. ʿAli b. Zuhra al-Ḥusaynī al-Ḥalabī
Well-Known AsIbn Zuhra
LineageSharif Sadat (Ishaqiyyun)
Well-Known Relatives'Ali b. Zuhra, al-Sayyid Abu l-Mahasin Zuhra al-Halabi
BirthRamadan 7, 511/January 2, 1118 CE
Studied inAleppo
Burial PlaceAleppo
Scholarly Information
Professors'Ali b. Zuhra al-HalabiAl-Sayyid Abu l-Mahasin Zuhra al-HalabiAbu 'Abd Allah Husayn b. Tahir b. Husayn

Al-Sayyid Abū l-Makārim ʿIzz al-Dīn Ḥamzat b. ʿAlī b. Zuhra al-Ḥusaynī al-Ḥalabī, (Arabic:السَیِّد اَبُوالمَکارِم عِزُّالدّین حَمزَة بن عَلیّ بن زُهرَه الحُسَیني الحَلَبي) (b. 511/1118 - d. 585/1189) famous as Ibn Zuhra was a jurist, usuli, theologian, nahwi, and one of the great shi'a scholars of sixth/twelfth century. He is in possession of a jurisprudential book by the name of al-Ghunya. He is prominent in thinkers' viewpoint as Sahib al-Ghunya.

Of his prominent pupils are Shadhan b. Jibra'il al-Qummi, Muhammad b. Ja'far al-Mashhadi, Ibn Idris al-Hilli.

Birth and Lineage

Ibn Zuhra was born in Aleppo, in 511/1118 on Ramadan month. He was one of the respectable sayyids whose lineage goes back to Ishaq b. Ja'far al-Sadiq (a). Because of this, these sayyids are well-known as Ishaqiyyun. It has been said that his lineage refers to Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (a) through nine or twelve people.

Muhammad Baqir Khwansari has written:

"Ibn Zuhara's lineage goes back to Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (a) through twelve people who all are respectable sayyids."[1]

Mirza 'Abd Allah Afandi Isfahani elaborates on Ibn Zuhra's lineage:

"Al-Sayyid al-'Izz al-Din Abu l-Makarim Hamzat b, 'Ali b. Abi l-Mahasin Zuhra b. Abi al-Hasan b. Abi l-Mahasin Zuhra b. Abi l-Mawahib 'Ali b. Abi Salim Muhammad b. Ibrahim Muhammad al-Naqib b. 'Ali b. Abi 'Ali Ahmad b. Abi Ja'far Muhammad b. Abi Abd Allah al-Husayn b. Abi Ibrahim Ishaq al-Mu'tamin b. Abi Abd Allah Ja'far b. Muhammad al-Sadiq (a) al-Husayni al-Halabi."


Ibn Zuhra was from a respectable family and twelver shi'a sayyids of Aleppo whose great ancestor had migrated from Medina to Harran village around Aleppo. This family had always been the focus of knowledge, superiority, and piety, and many Shi'a scholars have benefited from them. Ibn Zuhra is one of the most prominent of this family. He is so well-known that whenever Ibn Zuhra name is said without a sign or analogy, it obviously refers to him.[2]

Scholarly Position of Ibn Zuhra

Ibn Zuhra has some works in different fields of knowledge; however, only one of his books by the name of Ghunyat al-nuzu' ila 'ilmay al-usul wa al-furu' has been remained. Ghunya is an admirable masterpiece in an era of stagnancy of principles of jurisprudence and jurisprudence. His dauntless criticisms and discords with al-Shaykh al-Tusi in this book have prepared criticizing the ideas of past people. This book embraces three parts including theology, jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence.

High-quality discourses in Ghunya represent Ibn Zuhra's vast knowledge of Usul in Sunni jurisprudence and Usul in Shia jurisprudence and his attentiveness.

Some of His Usuli Viewpoints

  • Ibn Zuhara believes pure decree entails neither wujub nor istihbab literally when talking about decree issue, but religiously it entails wujub. Further, the decree religiously signifies fawr (it literally means a state of haste which there is no slowness); however, it literally signifies neither fawr nor tarakhi (i.e. to hesitate), in contrast with what al-Shaykh al-Tusi holds.[3]
  • According to Ibn Zuhra, prohibition also signifies hurma, but prohibition does not signify that the prohibited matter is corrupted. It is contrary to al-Shaykh al-Tusi's point of view.[4]
  • Universal phrases are not made to denote universal meaning, for these phrases are applied both to give universal and particular meaning. This stand is against to al-Shaykh al-Tusi's belief.[5]
  • The concept of property in principles of jurisprudence is not legitimized.[6]
  • Ibn Zuhra explains three conditions concerning the authenticity of repetitive (mutiwatir) hadith:
  • First, the number of narrators must be so significant that the probability of their agreement on the falsity of Hadith is low.
  • Second, it must be obvious that the narrators have no shared motivation to lie.
  • Third, the narrators must have no doubt about what they narrate.[7]
  • Khabar Wahid (a hadith which is not repetitive) does not bring certainty, and is approximately reliable just in case the narrator is 'Adil. Moreover, it is reasonably jay'iz to conform to a wahid hadith, yet religiously, there is no reason to conform with wahid hadith. In this case, he is in disagreement with al-Shaykh al-Tusi while agreeing with al-Sayyid al-Murtada.[8]

Scholars' Views

Al-Shaykh al-Hur al 'Amili says: "He was a learned man, a scholar, a reliable and honorable person, and possesses plenty of works."[10]

Al-'Allama al-Majlisi refers to him as a perfect scholar.[11]

Muhaddith Nuri has written: "Hamzat b. 'Ali b. Zuhra is a great respectful jurist, well known as Sahib al-Ghunya. He, his father, his ancestor, his brother, and his nephew are all great jurists of us, and their family is so great and respectful in Aleppo."[12]

Muhaddith Qummi says: "Ibn Zuhra al-Halabi is a great scholar, an honorable learned man, and a well-known jurist who has many works in fields of Imama, jurisprudence, and nahw."[13]




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The book Ghunyat al-nuzu'

Ghunyat al-nuzu' ila 'ilmay al-usul wa al-furu', famous as al-Ghunya, his most prominent book which has a complete course of principles of jurisprudence and demonstrative fiqh.

  1. Al-I'tirad ala al-kalam al-warid min Hims
  2. Al-Jawab 'amma dhikarah mataran
  3. Al-Jawab 'an al-kalam al-warid min nahiyya al-Jibil
  4. Jawab al-masa'il al-warida min Baghdad
  5. Qabas al-anwar fi nusra al-'itra al-akhyar
  6. Jawab al-kitab al-warid min Hims
  7. Mas'ala fi al-radd 'ala al-munajjimin
  8. The problem of prohibiting fuqqa'
  9. The problem regarding that God is jabbar and hayy (all-alive)
  10. Examining the problem of nikah mut'a being halal
  11. A treatise about the problem of thinking and reasoning
  12. Al-Nokat
  13. Disputing philosophical problems[16]


He passed away in Rajab month, 585/1189 at the age of 74, and was buried on the foot of Jawshan Saghir Mountain.[17] On his tomb it is inscribed:


  1. Khwansari, Rawdat, vol. 2, p. 374.
  2. Zubaydi, Taj al-'Arus, vol. 6, p. 484.
  3. Ibn Zuhra, Ghunya, p. 463.
  4. Ibn Zuhra, Ghunya, p. 463, 468.
  5. Ibn Zuhra, Ghunya, p. 468.
  6. Ibn Zuhra, Ghunya, p. 472.
  7. Ibn Zuhra, Ghunya, p. 475.
  8. Ibn Zuhra, Ghunya, p. 475.
  9. Ibn Zuhra, Ghunya, p. 478.
  10. 'Amili, Amal al-amil, vol. 2, p. 105.
  11. Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar, vol. 1, p. 21.
  12. Nuri, Khatima al-mustadrak, vol. 3, p. 8.
  13. Qummi, al-Kunay wa al-alqab, vol. 1, p. 299.
  14. Ibn Zuhra, Ghunya, p. 26
  15. Amin, A'yan al-shi'a, vol. 6, p. 250.
  16. Amin, A'yan al-shi'a, vol. 6, p. 250.
  17. Qummi, al-Kunay wa al-alqab, vol. 1, p. 299.
  18. Amin, A'yan al-shi'a, vol. 6, p. 250.


  • Amili, Muhammad b. Hasan al-. Amal al-amil. Baghdad: Andilus, [n.d].
  • Amin, Sayyid Muhsin. A'yan al-shi'a. Beirut: Dar al-Ta'rif, [n.d].
  • Halabi, Ibn Zuhra al-. Ghunyat al-nuzu' ila 'ilmay al-usul wa al-furu. Qom: Imam al-Sadiq (a), 1417 AH.
  • Khwansari, Muhammad Baqir. Rawdat al-jannat fi ahwal al-'ulama wa al-sadat. Qom: Isma'iliyan, [n.d].
  • Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir al-. Bihar al-anwar li durar akhbar al-a'imma al-athar. Beirut: Mu'assisa al-wafa', [n.d].
  • Nuri, Husayn al-. Khatima al-mustadrak. Qom: Al al-Bayt, 1415 AH.
  • Qummi, 'Abbas. Al-Kunay wa al-alqab. Tehran: Maktaba al-Sadr, [n.d[
  • Zubaydi, Muhammad al-. Taj al-'arus min jawahir al-qamus. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1414 AH.