Dhu l-Hulayfa Mosque
Dhū l-Ḥulayfa Mosque (Arabic:مسجد ذي الحليفة) is among historical mosques of Medina located in Dhu l-Hulayfa or Abar 'Ali region, 8 km south west of Masjid al-Nabi on the way to Mecca. Dhu l-Hulayfa is the Miqat (venue) of those who go for 'Umra ('Umrat al-Tamattu' and al-'Umra al-Mufrada) from Medina to Mecca. This place is also known with other names such as al-Shajara Mosque and al-Ihram Mosque. The noble Prophet (s) wore Ihram for 'Umra and Hajj al-Tamattu' in this Miqat.
- Main article: Abar 'Ali
Abar 'Ali (Wells of Ali) is a region full of palm trees, about 8km south of Medina, where there are water wells. It is said that they are dug by Imam Ali (a) to be used by pilgrims of hajj. This place is one of the Miqats (venues) of hajj. Today, this region is called by three different names of Abar Ali, Dhu l-Hulayfa and al-Shajara Mosque.
This place has become famous by other names called from other aspects such as:
- Al-Shajara Mosque: the reason for calling it al-Shajara is that during the travel the noble Prophet (s) had in 6/628 to sign the Hudaybiyya Treaty, he (s) stayed in this place near a tree ("shajara" in Arabic) called Samara and wore Ihram. The same happened in 7/629, when the Prophet (s) went for 'Umrat al-Qada' and also in 10/632 in Hajjat al-Wida'.
- Al-Ihram Mosque: because it is a place where hajj pilgrims wear Ihram.
- Al-Miqat Mosque: because it is one of the Miqats for pilgrims of hajj and 'Umra.
- Abar Ali Mosque: This name is very famous. They say that it is called so, because after the Prophet (s) passed away and the caliphate was seized, Imam Ali (a) dug several wells for his palm gardens in this area. Based on a narration from Imam al-Sadiq (a), this area was given to Imam Ali (a). So, the wells which belonged to Imam Ali (a) were called as Abar Ali (a).
The Prophet's (s) Wearing of Ihram in this Mosque
In his travels to perform 'Umra and Hajj al-Tamattu', the noble Prophet (s) wore Ihram in this Miqat:
- In the year when Hudaybiyya Treaty was signed, the Prophet (s) could not go to 'Umra (6/628).
- In 7/629, during 'Umrat al-Qada'
- During Hajjat al-Wida' in 10/632.
After making a two-rak'a prayer in al-Shajara Mosque, the noble Prophet (s) wore Ihram and said:
["Here I am (at Your service) O my Lord, here I am; here I am, no partner is for You, here I am; surly, the praise and the blessing is Yours and the kingdom, no partner is for You, here I am"] It is reported that the first time, the Prophet (s) stopped in this place under a tree where in later years a mosque was built.
Repair and Reconstruction
Although this mosque was damaged in 8th/14th century, but it was still used. It seems that its first building had a Shabistan (a quarter for sitting) and a courtyard, but in 8th/14th and 9th/15th centuries, there was only a wall around it.
In 10th/16th Century
Zayn al-Din al-Istidar reconstructed the mosque in 961/1554 and built a great wall around it which was still standing until Ottoman period. He also rebuilt the place for calling to prayer in the corner north west of the mosque and since the place of Mihrab was not known, he built another Mihrab in the middle of the wall directing Qibla which could be the original place for Mihrab. He also built stairs in three sides of the mosque to prevent the entrance of animals to the mosque.
In the Ottoman Period
In the Contemporary Period
The size of this mosque is 25 square meters from south to north and east to west sides. In recent years, this mosque has been beautifully reconstructed and its size has reached to 88 thousand square meters.
Rulings of Dhu l-Hulayfa Miqat
Imamiyya scholars in fiqh (jurisprudence) have mentioned the rulings related to this mosque as one of the Miqats for hajj in details in their works. Some of the rulings of this mosque and its location are as below:
- Dhu l-Hulayfa in comfort (not in emergency situation) is a Miqat of 'Umrat al-Tamattu' and al-'Umra al-Mufrada for the people of Medina and those who go to Mecca from Medina.
- The Miqat for the people of Medina in emergency situation, such as illness or inability, is Juhfa.
- J'fariyan, Athar-i islam-yi Makka wa Madina, p.275.
- Qa'idan, Tarikh wa athar-i Islam-yi Makka wa Madina , p. 409.
- J'fariyan, Athar-i islam-yi Makka wa Madina , p.275.
- Najafi, Madinashinasi, vol.1. p.167-168; Qa'idan, Tarikh wa athar-i Islam-yi Makka wa Madina, p.410.
- Najafi, Madinashinasi, vol.1, p.268; Qa'idan, Tarikh wa athar-i Islam-yi Makka wa Madina , p.276.
- Qa'idan, Tarikh wa athar-i Islam-yi Makka wa Madina , p.410.
- Tabataba'i Yazdi, Al-'Urwat al-wuthqa, vol.2, p.551; Khomeini, Tahrir al-wasila, vol.1, p.109.
- Tabataba'i Yazdi, Al-'Urwat al-wuthqa, vol.2, p.552.
- J'fariyan, Rasul. Athar-i islam-yi Makka wa Madina. Tehran: Nashr Mash'ar, 1384Sh.
- Khomeini, Ruh Allah. Tahrir al-wasila. Qom: Muasisa Matbu'at Dar al-'Ilm.
- Najafi, Muhammad Baqir. Madinashinasi. Tehran: Nashr Mash'ar, 1387Sh.
- Qa'idan, Asghar. Tarikh wa athar-i Islam-yi Makka wa Madina. Tehran: Nashr Mash'ar, 1381Sh.
- Tabataba'i Yazdi, Muhammad Kazim. Al-'Urwat al-wuthqa. Tehran: al-Maktaba al-'Ilmiyya al-Islamiyya.