Hajjat al-Wida'

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Ḥajjat al-Widāʿ (Arabic: حَجَّة الوِداع) was the only hajj journey of the Prophet (s) after Hijra. After Hijra, the Prophet (s) went to Mecca for 'Umra three times;[1] but, according to historians and hadith scholars, he (s) only once attended hajj rituals and it was few months before he (s) passed away.[2] Since, this hajj took place in the last year of his life, the Prophet (s) made farewell to people and it became known as Hajjat al-wida' (Hajj of Farewell). According to Shi'a beliefs, on return from this hajj, the Prophet (s) publicly announced the imamate and guardianship of 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) in Ghadir Khumm, following the order of God and requested people's allegiance with Imam 'Ali (a); therefore, this hajj is very important for Shi'a.

Another name of this hajj is Hajjat al-Balagh (Arabic: حَجَّة البَلاغ), since the Verse of Tabligh was revealed to the Prophet (s) on return from that journey.[3] Another name of that hajj of the Prophet (s) is Hajjat al-Islam,[4] since it is the only hajj of the Prophet (s) during the rule of Islam and its rituals were practiced according to Islamic law.

Beginning of the Journey and Wearing Ihram

According to a detailed hadith narrated by Mu'awiya b. 'Ammar from Imam al-Sadiq (a), the Prophet (s) lived in Medina for 10 years and did not go to hajj.[5] When the verse "And proclaim the ḥajj to people:…"[Note 1] (22:27) was revealed to the Prophet (s), he (s) announced that he (s) would go to hajj that year. People of Medina, villages and dessert gathered in Medina to accompany the Prophet (s) during hajj rituals. 4 nights before the end of Dhu l-Qa'da 10/632 the Prophet (s) moved from Medina to Mecca.[6]

In Sunni sources, it is mentioned that the Prophet (s) spent one night in Miqat of Dhu l-Hulayfa and then moved towards Mecca.[7] However, according to the hadith from Imam al-Sadiq (a), the Prophet (s) put on Ihram as soon as he (s) arrived in the Miqat and did not stay there that night.[8]

At the Miqat, the Prophet (s) taught people the manners of wearing Ihram. He (s) made ghusl (ritual bath) and then put on Ihram for the Hajj al-Qiran;[9] His Ihram clothing was two pieces of Yemeni unsewed cotton that later on became his kafan (shroud);[10] and moved on so that he (s) did his noon prayers in the Mosque of Shajara.[11]

Later, Muslims built some mosques at the places the Prophet (s) stayed or did prayers.[12]

The Prophet (s) stayed one night in Dhi Tuwa[13] and arrived in Mecca on the 4th of Dhu l-Hijja.[14]

Doing Rituals

Circumambulation and Prayers

On Dhu l-Hijja 5, the Prophet (s) and his companions entered Masjid al-Haram from the gate of Banu Shayba,[15] went to the Ka'ba and touched al-Hajar al-Aswad (the black stone) and proceeded to circumambulation of the Ka'ba (Tawaf).[16] The Prophet (s) riding a camel circumambulated the Ka'ba[17] and finally once again touched al-Hajar al-Aswad,[18] kissed it and cried long near it.[19] Then, he did two rak'as of prayer behind the Maqam of Abraham (a).[20]

Sa'y

After he (s) did the prayers, drank from the Well of Zamzam and prayed and then went to Mount Safa[21] and said that he (s) would begin Sa'y from there since God mentioned it first.[22] When he (s) arrived there, turned toward al-Rukn al-Yamani of the Ka'ba and long prayed to God[23] and jog-trotted part of the way.[24] When he (s) arrived at Mount Marwa, stopped and prayed.[25] Apparently, he (s) rode the way.[26]

Moving to Mina and 'Arafat

Upon the sunset of the 8th of Dhu l-Hijja, the noble Prophet (s) and Muslims moved towards Mina and stayed there for the night and moved towards 'Arafat the next morning after the sunrise. When the caravan arrived in Namira (land of ʿUrana) beside 'Arafat, stopped and the Prophet (s) and others erected tent there and the Prophet (s) made his historical speech there. Then he (s) went to 'Arafat and stayed there and prayed until the sunset.[27]

According to a narration from Imam al-Sadiq (a), Eid al-Ghadir (18 of Dhu l-Hijja) was Friday.[28] According to this narration, the day of staying in 'Arafat was Wednesday, 9th of Dhu l-Hijja; but according to al-Suyuti, the Sunni historian, the Second Caliph is said to have reported that staying in 'Arafat was made on Friday.

Staying at Mash'ar

Upon the sunset, the Prophet (s) got on the camel and rode towards Muzdalifa (Mash'ar al-Haram)[29] and advised Muslims that slowly pass the way.[30] The Prophet (s) did his Maghrib and 'Isha' prayers in an appropriate place in Mash'ar al-Haram[31] and made a rest. At the down, he prayed and supplicated before God, which is so much recommended in Hajj.[32]

Ramy al-Jamarat

Upon the sunrise, he (s) went towards Mina and straightly to al-Jamara al-'Aqaba and threw seven stones at it.[33]

Sacrifice

He (s) then went to place of sacrifice and from a hundred camels he (s) had brought with himself from Medina,[34] he (s) gave thirty some camels to 'Ali (a) to sacrifice for himself and he (s) sacrificed the other 60 camels. They ate little from what they sacrificed and gave the rest for charity.[35]

Then, Mu'ammar b. 'Abd Allah b. Haratha (or Haritha)[Note 2] shaved the hair of the Prophet's (s) head following his order[36] and after the Prophet (s) did his personal obligations and answered some of people's questions regarding hajj rituals,[37] he (s) went to Mecca, circumambulated the Ka'ba and did noon prayer in al-Masjid al-Haram.[38] He (s) then returned to Mina and spend 3 days of Tashriq days there, did Ramy al-Jamara and exited Mina.[39]

At the end of Sa'y, the Prophet (s) taught Muslims the rituals of Tamattu' hajj which includes the ritual for 'Umra and hajj. Until then, people only knew Hajj al-Ifrad and Qiran and considered doing 'Umra during the special time of hajj [Dhu l-Hijja] inappropriate and wrong, therefore some Muslims accepted this new rule unwillingly.[40]

Characteristics of this Journey

The announcement of Wilaya

Main article: Event of Ghadir
"Ghadir" painted by Mahmud Farshchiyan

On 18th of Dhu l-Hijja, the caravan of the Prophet (s) arrived in Ghadir Khumm near Juhfa. There, following the order from God,[47] the Prophet (s) appointed Imam 'Ali (a) as his successor.[48] Afterward, the caravan moved towards Medina and apparently arrived there on 24th of Dhu l-Hijja.[49] Last days of Dhu l-Hijja, the Prophet (s) was in Medina.[50]

Hajj of the Prophet (s) took 28 to 30 days. The Verse of Ikmal al-Din[51] [Perfection of the Religion] is among the verses which certainly revealed to the Prophet (s) in Hajjat al-Wida'.

The Number of Hajj Pilgrims

The prevalent statement in the sources is that forty thousands people were present in the Mecca during Hajjat al-Wida'. There are also other statements, like 70,000, 90,000, 100,000, 114,000, 120,000 and at most 130,000 people. But it seems that these numbers are exaggerated and not more than 50.000 people were present. Considering that most reports mentions that 40,000 were in Mecca in that time, it seems that this number is more acceptable.

See Also

Notes

  1. al-Waqidi, al-Maghazi, vol.3 p.1088
  2. al-Waqidi, al-Maghazi, vol.3 p.1088-1089; al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.244
  3. Ibn Hisham, al-Sira, vol.4 p.253; al-Mas'udi, Tanbih, p.275-276
  4. Ibn Sa'd, al-Tabaqat, vol.2 p.172; al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.248
  5. al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.245-248
  6. al-Waqidi, al-Maghazi, vol.3 p.1089; al-Tusi, Tahdhib, vol.5 p.454
  7. al-Bukhari, Sahih, vol.2 p.147; Abu Dawud, Sunan, vol.2 p.375; al-Biyhaqqi, al-Sunan al-kubra, vol.7 p.83
  8. al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.248-249
  9. al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.245; Majlisi, Mir'at al-'uqul, vol.17 p.111
  10. al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.339
  11. al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.248-249
  12. Marjani, Bahjat al-nufus, p.280-290; Samhudi, Wafa' al-wafa, vol.3 p.1001-1020
  13. Muslim, Sahih, vol.1 p.919
  14. al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.245
  15. al-Waqidi, al-Maghazi, vol.3 p.1097; al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.250
  16. al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.245
  17. Wathiqi, Hajjat al-wida' , p.106-110
  18. al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.245
  19. Ibn Maja, Sunan, vol.2 p.982
  20. al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.245, 249-250; Muslim, Sahih, vol.1 p.887
  21. al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.250
  22. Qur'an 2:158; al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.245; Muslim, Sahih, vol.1 p.888
  23. al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.246
  24. Muslim, Sahih, vol.1 p.888
  25. al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.246
  26. al-Waqidi, al-Maghazi, vol.3 p.1099; Wathiqi, Hajjat al-wida' , p.133-135
  27. al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.246-247; Muslim, Sahih, vol.1 p.889-890
  28. al-Saduq, Khisal, vol.2, p.394
  29. al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.247; al-Biyhaqqi, al-Sunan al-kubra, vol.7 p.260; Muslim, Sahih, vol.1 p.890-891
  30. al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.247; al-Tusi, Tahdhib, vol.5 p.187
  31. al-Tusi, Tahdhib, vol.5 p.188
  32. Wathiqi, Hajjat al-wida' , p.211-216
  33. Muslim, Sahih, vol.1 p.891-892; Qadi Nu'man, Da'a'im al-Islam, vol.1 p.322-323; al-Nuri, Mustadrak, vol.10 p.67
  34. al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.248
  35. al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.247; al-Tusi, Tahdhib, vol.5 p.227; Muslim, Sahih, vol.1 p.892
  36. al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.250; al-Tusi, Tahdhib, vol.5 p.458
  37. Qadi Nu'man, Da'a'im al-islam, vol.1 p.330
  38. al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.248; Muslim, Sahih, vol.1 p.892
  39. al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.248
  40. al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.246; Muslim, Sahih, vol.1 p.888-889
  41. al-Waqidi, al-Maghazi, vol.3 p.1099; Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.246
  42. al-Waqidi, al-Maghazi, vol.3 p.1100; al-Mas'udi, Tanbih, p.276; al-Azraqi, Akhbar Makka, vol.1 p.253; al-Fasi, Shifa' al-gharam, vol.1 p.230
  43. Muttaqi, Kanz al-'ummal, vol.3 p.22
  44. Ibn Fahd, Ithaf al-wara, vol.1 p.567
  45. al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.1 p.403-404; al-Ya'qubi, Tarikh, vol.2 p.102; Ibn Maja, Sunan, vol.1 p.84-85
  46. al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.4 p.246; Muslim, Sahih, vol.1 p.888
  47. Qur'an 5:67
  48. Ibn al-Maghazili, Manaqib, p.16-18; al-Amini, al-Ghadir, vol.1 p.508-541
  49. Wathiqi, Hajjat al-wida' , p.335
  50. Ibn Hisham, al-Sira, vol.4 p.253
  51. Qur'an 5:3
  1. وَ أَذِّنْ فِی النّاسِ بِالْحَجِّ‌
  2. Others have said that he was Mu'ammar b. 'Abd Allah b. Nafi' who converted to Islam in the first days of the Prophet's mission. In the migration to Abyssinia, he went to Abyssinia and migrated to Medina by delay. He lived a long life. [Ibn Athir, Usd al-Ghaba, vol. 4, p. 400.]

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