Priority: b, Quality: b

Dome of the Rock

From WikiShia
Jump to: navigation, search

Al-Ṣakhra Mosque or al-Ṣakhra al-Muqaddasa (Arabic: الصخرة المقدسة) is a mosque in the sacred area on Mount Moriah in Jerusalem al-Quds. This mosque and its dome which is known as Qubbat al-ṣakhra (Arabic: قبة الصخرة) [Dome of the Rock] has been built over a huge rock and is respected in Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Based on Islamic beliefs, Holy Prophet (s) has ascended to heavens from upon this rock. Based on Jewish beliefs, Earth has been expanded from beneath this rock, human’s body has been created from its dust and Abraham (a) has been assigned to sacrifice his son there.

The famous golden dome which some people think to be al-Aqsa Mosque is in fact the dome of the rock of al-Sakhra Mosque.

Al-Sakhra mosque was built in first/seventh century during the reign of Abd al-Malik b. Marwan and has been renovated in different eras ever since.

Importance

Dome of the Rock along with Umayyad mosque in Damascus, Amr b. al-As mosque in Cairo and Qirwan mosque in Tunisia are the most important constructions in the first/seventh century.[1]

The mountain on which the Dome of the Rock has been constructed was the direction of qibla for Muslims up to second year/623 CE after hijra.[2] According to Islamic beliefs, the Holy Prophet (s) ascended to heavens from upon this rock at the Night of Ascent.[3] Jews believe that Earth has been expanded from beneath this rock and the body of Adam (a) has been created from its dust and it is the same place where Abraham (a) was assigned to sacrifice his son.[4]

Location and Structure

The dome inside the mosque which is said to be the footprint of the Prophet (s) at the Night of Ascent.

Mosque of the Rock or Dome of the Rock is located in the area of al-Aqsa Mosque on a mountain called Moriah in Jerusalem.[5] Dome of the Rock has a golden dome and is located over an octagonal structure which has four gates to four directions.[6]

On a piece of marble pillar in southwest of the mosque, there is a place called "Qadam Muhammad (s)" which is said to be the footprint of the Prophet (s) at the Night of Ascent.[7] Also near the Dome of the Rock, there is a place known as Qubbat al-Nabi (Dome of the Prophet) and according to local beliefs in Jerusalem, Prophet Khidr (a) has said prayers there.[8] Dome of the Rock is known as one of the richest Islamic structures in terms of decorations. [9]

Historical Background

Location of al-Sakhra Mosque and al-Aqsa Mosque

Construction of al-Sakhra Mosque started in 66/685 in the reign of Abd al-Malik b. Marwan on the rock on Mount Moriah in Jerusalem and finished in 72/691.[10] When Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr acceded to caliphate in Mecca and forced people to pledge allegiance with him, Abd al-Malik b. Marwan restricted people's trip to Hajj and tried to replace it with a visit to and circumambulation around the Dome of the Rock.[11]

Dome of the Rock was reconstructed in 216/831 during the reign of the Abbassid caliph, al-Ma'mun. After reconstruction, the name of al-Ma'mun replaced the name of Abd al-Malik b. Marwan on stone carvings in the mosque. However, the date remained intact as 72/691.[12]

In 407/1016 a severe earthquake occurred in al-Quds and Dome of the Rock was destroyed. In 413/1022 and in the reign of Fatimid caliph, al-Zahir, al-Sakhra Mosque was reconstructed. Another earthquake in 460/1067 destroyed the mosque and it was reconstructed again in the reign of Abbassid caliph, al-Qa'im bi Amr Allah in 467/1074.[13]

Naming

This mosque was named al-Sakhra Mosque since it was located on a rock on Mount Moriah in Jerusalem. That is why it is also called Dome of the Rock.[14]

Dome of the Rock is sometimes mistaken with al-Aqsa Mosque. It should be noted that Dome of the Rock has a golden dome while the dome of al-Aqsa Mosque is dark.[15]

See Also

Notes

  1. Saʿādatī, Naqsh-i amākin wa athār-i madhhabī dar tamaddun-i Islāmī, p. 150.
  2. Mīr Abu l-Qāsimī, Bāstānshināsī-yi Qur'ān, p. 114.
  3. Mūsā Ghūsha, Tārīkh-i majmūʿa masjid al-aqṣā, p. 23.
  4. Ḥamīdī, Tārīkh-i Urshalīm, p. 17, 18.
  5. Mūsā Ghūsha, Tārīkh-i majmūʿa masjid al-aqṣā, p. 23.
  6. Mūsā Ghūsha, Tārīkh-i majmūʿa masjid al-aqṣā, p. 23.
  7. Ḥamīdī, Tārīkh-i Urshalīm, p. 17, 18.
  8. Nijātī, Ḥaḍrat-i Khiḍr wa makānhā-yi mansūb bi īshān, p. 244.
  9. Ḥamīdī, Tārīkh-i Urshalīm, p. 17, 18.
  10. Mūsā Ghūsha, Tārīkh-i majmūʿa masjid al-aqṣā, p. 23.
  11. Damīrī, Ḥayāt al-ḥaywān, vol. 1, p. 100; Ḥusaynī Tehrānī, Imāmshināsī, vol. 18, p. 323-325.
  12. Mūsā Ghūsha, Tārīkh-i majmūʿa masjid al-aqṣā, p. 26.
  13. Mūsā Ghūsha, Tārīkh-i majmūʿa masjid al-aqṣā, p. 26.
  14. Ḥamīdī, Tārīkh-i Urshalīm, p. 17, 18.
  15. Do not confuse the Dome of the Rock with Al-Aqsa Mosque www.iribnews.ir.

References

  • Bīnish, ʿAbd al-Ḥusayn. Nigāhī nu bi janghā-yi salībī. Qom: Zamzam-i Hidāyat, 1386 Sh.
  • Damīrī, Kamāl al-Dīn al-. Ḥayāt al-ḥaywān. Edited by Aḥmad Ḥasan Basij. Beirut: Dār al-Kitāb al-ʿIlmīyya, 1424 AH/2002.
  • Ḥamīdī, Jaʿfar. Tārīkh-i Urshalīm. 2nd edition. Tehran: Amīrkabīr, 1381 Sh.
  • Ḥusaynī Tehrānī, Sayyid Muḥammad Ḥusayn. Imāmshināsī, vol 18. Mashhad: Intishārāt-i ʿAllāma Ṭabāṭabā'ī, 1418 AH.
  • Mūsawīpanāh, Ibrāhīm. Ḥaram dar vāzha-hā. Mashhad: Āstān-i Qus-i Raḍawī, 1391 Sh.
  • Mīr Abu l-Qāsimī, Muḥammad Taqī. Bāstānshināsī-yi Qur'ān. Rasht: Kitāb Mubīn, 1392 Sh.
  • Nijātī, Muḥammad Saʿīd and Faqīh Baḥr al-ʿUlūm, Muḥammad Mahdī. Ḥaḍrat-i Khiḍr wa makānhā-yi mansūb bi īshān. Tehran: Mashʿar, 1395 Sh.
  • Saʿādatī, Qādīr. Naqsh-i amākin wa athār-i madhhabī dar tamaddun-i Islāmī; majmūʿa maqālāt-i kungira-yi jahānī-yi jaryānhā-yi ifrāṭī wa takfīrī az dīdgāh-i ʿulamā-yi Islām. Qom: Dār al-Aʿlām li Madrisat Ahl al-Bayt, 1393 Sh.