Al-Sayyid Abu l-Qasim al-Khoei

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Al-Sayyid Abu l-Qasim al-Khoei
Sayyid Abu al-Qasim Khoei.jpg
Personal Information
Religious AffiliationTwelver Shia
BirthRajab 15, 1317/November 19, 1899
Place of BirthKhuy
Studied inNajaf
DeathSafar 8th, 1413/August 8, 1992
Burial PlaceHoly Shrine of Imam 'Ali (a)
Scholarly Information
ProfessorsAqa Diya' 'Iraqi, Muhammad Husayn Isfahani, Shaykh Muhammad Jawad Balaghi, etc.
StudentsHusayn Wahid Khurasani, Muhammad Taqi Bahjat, Sayyid Ja'far Shahidi, etc.
WorksDirasat fi l-Usul, Al-Bayan fi tafsir al-Qur'an, Mu'jam rijal al-hadith etc.
Socio-Political Activities
Socio-Political
Activities
Supporting Imam Khomeini and Islamic Revolution of Iran, Supporting al-Intifada al-Sha'baniyya.
Official Websitehttp://www.alkhoei.net/

Al-Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim al-Mūsawī al-Khoeī (Arabic: السيد أبو القاسم الموسوي الخوئي) (b. Rajab 15, 1317/November 19, 1899 - d. Safar 8, 1413/August 8, 1992) was an influential religious authority of Shi'a, scholar of rijal and the author of 23-volume set of Mu'jam rijal al-hadith and also the author of the exegetical work, al-Bayan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. Mirza Na'ini and Muhaqqiq Isfahani were two of his greatest teachers in jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence.

The official beginning of al-Khoei's authority is considered to be after the demise of Ayatollah Burujirdi and the demise of Ayatollah al-Hakim is considered the beginning of his supreme authority especially in Iraq. During his fifty years of teaching, al-Khoei taught a complete course of advanced level in jurisprudence, six advanced courses of principles of jurisprudence and one short course of exegesis of the Qur'an. Scholars including al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr, Mirza Jawad Tabrizi, al-Sayyid Ali al-Sistani, Husayn Wahid Khorasani, al-Sayyid Musa al-Sadr and Sayyid 'Abd al-Karim Musawi Ardabili are amongst Ayatollah al-Khoei's students.

Al-Khoei had important opinions and views in jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence, some of which were differ from those of famous Shi'a jurists. Some sources have mentioned as many as three hundred differing opinions. Opposing the view about the obligation of disbelievers in performing secondary principles of religion, not accepting relativeness of the beginning of lunar months and opposing the validity of frequency of a fatwa and consensus are some of his different opinions in jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence. During his authority, he took measures regarding preaching of religion and assisting the needy, including building libraries, schools, Husayniyyas and hospitals in Iran, Iraq, Malaysia, England, the United States of America, India and elsewhere.

Ayatollah al-Khoei was among the active political figures between 1961 and 1972 and took positions and sent out statements against the Pahlavi regime, including his objection to the event in Faydiyya seminary of Qom in 1963. Ayatollah al-Khoei withdrew from politics for ten years, but after the Islamic revolution in 1979 in Iran, and meeting of Farah Diba, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi's wife, with him and questions were raised about his meeting, he supported the revolution and the Islamic republic of Iran in cases including Iranian Islamic Republic referendum and also the war the Ba'ath regime of Iraq imposed on Iran. During 1991 uprisings in Iraq and appointment of a leadership council for government of regions under control of Shi'a, he was pressured by the government of Saddam Hussein and was under house arrest until his demise in 1992.

Biography

Al-Sayyid Abu l-Qasim al-Musavi al-Khoei was born on the 15th of Rajab, 1317/November 19, 1899 in Khuy –a city in the province of Azarbayjan Gharbi, Iran- to a religious family. His linage reaches Imam Musa al-Kazim (a). His father, al-Sayyid Ali Akbar al-Khoei, was a great scholar and a student of Shaykh Abdullah Mamaqani. After finishing his studies, he returned to his home town and engaged in his cleric duties and after the beginning of Iranian Constitutional Revolution,[1] and different stances toward it, he left Khuy to live in Najaf in 1328/1910-1.[2] Khoei passed away in Kufa on Saturday, Safar 8, 1413 (August 8, 1992) at the age of 96 because of a heart attack. He was buried beside Masjid al-Khadra' in the Shrine of Amir al-Mu'minin (a).[3]

Wife and Children

Ayatollah al-Khoei married twice. He had three sons and three daughters from his first marriage and four sons and two daughters from his second.[citation needed] Some of his famous children are:

There is no exact information about his daughters, but some of his son-in-laws are al-Sayyid Nasr Allah al-Mustanbit, al-Sayyid Murtada al-Hukmi, al-Sayyid Jalal al-Din Faqih Imani, Sayyid Ja'far Gharawi Na'ini, and Sayyid Mahmud Milani.[citation needed]

Scientific Life

He studied preliminaries and higher levels of seminary in six years and then participated in the classes of teachers of different sciences including jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence for fourteen years. As he wrote in his autobiography, he benefitted the most from Muhammad Husayn Na'ini and Muhammad Husayn Gharawi Isfahani.[4]

Teachers and Permission for Ijtihad

Sayyid Abu l-Qasim al-Khoei has also said that he mostly benefited from Mirza Muhammad Husayn Na'ini and Mirza Muhammad Husayn Isfahani and studied some of their books of fiqh with them, he mentioned other teachers of his including Shaykh al-Shari'a Isfahani (d. 1339/1920), Shaykh Mahdi Mazandarani (d. 1342/1923-4) and Aqa Diya' 'Iraqi.[5]

Some other teachers of Ayatollah al-Khoei include Shaykh Muhammad Jawad Balaghi in theology, beliefs and tafsir, Sayyid Abu Turab Khwansari in rijal and Diraya, Sayyid Abu l-Qasim Khwansari in mathematics, Sayyid Husayn Badkubih'i in philosophy and Islamic mysticism and also Sayyid Ali Qadi.[6]

During his education in the seminary of Najaf, al-Sayyid Abu l-Qasim al-Khoei had discussions with Sayyid Muhammad Hadi Milani (d. 1395/1975-6), Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i (d. 1402/1981), Sayyid Sadr al-Din Jaza'iri, Ali Muhammad Burujirdi (d. 1395/1975-6), Sayyid Husayn Khadimi and Sayyid Muhammad Husayni Hamadani.[7]

Al-Khoei received permissions for ijtihad from many great personalities of the seminary of Najaf in 1352/1933-4 including Muhammad Husayn Na'ini, Muhammad Husayn Gharawi Isfahani, Aqa Diya' Iraqi, Muhammad Husayn Balaghi, Mirza Ali Aqa Shirazi and Sayyid Abu l-Hasan Isfahani.[8]

Religious Authority

It is not exactly known when Khoei’s role as a Shiite authority began. However, many sources say that his authority became serious after the demise of Ayatollah Burujirdi, emphasizing that after the death of Sayyid Muhsin al-Tabataba'i al-Hakim, Khoei was recognized as the highest authority, particularly in Iraq.[9] His religious authority is reported very significant among Iranian Shi'a as well.[10] Ayatollah al-Khoei is considered among those religious authorities who was influential among most Shi'a, including Arabs and non-Arabs.[11] Fourteen Mujtahids in Najaf including Sadra Badkubih'i, Sayyid Muhammad Baqir Sadr, Sayyid Muhammad Rawhani, Mujtaba Lankarani, Shaykh Musa Zanjani, Yusuf Karbala'i, Sayyid Yusuf Hakim and Sayyid Ja'far Mar'ashi announced al-Khoei as the most-learned religious authority.[12] Al-Sayyid Musa al-Sadr, on behalf of the Supreme Islamic Shi'a Council of Lebanon, announced al-Khoei as the most-learned religious authority.[13]

Teaching

During his studies in the seminary of Najaf, al-Sayyid Abu l-Qasim al-Khoei used to teach as well and according to reports of different sources, he taught every book he studied.[14]

After the demise of Muhammad Husayn Na'ini and Muhammad Husayn Gharawi Isfahani, the classes of al-Sayyid Abu l-Qasim al-Khoei and Mirza Muhammad Ali Kazimi Khurasani were reported among important classes in Najaf; and thus, after the demise of Kazimi Khurasani, the classes of Ayatollah al-Khoei were the best and most crowded classes in Najaf.[15] As al-Khoei himself wrote in his autobiography, during the many years of teaching, he never stopped teaching his students except in the days of illness or in journey.[16] He taught intermediate level and advanced level of lessons in the seminary of Najaf for seventy years and according to reports, he held the most important class of Najaf seminary for about fifty years and students from Iran, India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Lebanon and some other countries participated in his class.[17]

Ayatollah al-Khoei taught a complete course of advanced level of jurisprudence and six courses of advanced level of principles of jurisprudence. He also taught a short course on exegesis of the Qur'an.[18]

Method of Teaching

Ayatollah al-Khoei was considered effective in teaching scientific discussions. It is said that he presented discussions clearly, eloquently, orderly, without unnecessary side discussions or philosophical discussions, benefitted from hadiths and especially focused on the chains of transmissions for hadiths.[19] His class contained a brief account of the scientific views and principles mentioned in the classes of Aqa Diya' Iraqi, Muhammad Husayn Na'ini and Muhammad Husayn Gharawi Isfahani and his own views.[20]

Works and Lecture Transcriptions

Mu'jam rijal al-hadith Khoei wrote various works, including scholarly books and essays, essays of fatwas, and transcriptions (taqrirat) of his teachers’ lectures. Many of his works are collected in a fifty-volume collection under Mawsu'at al-Imam al-Khoei (Encyclopedia of al-Imam al-Khoei), forty-two volumes of which include a complete course of Demonstrative Jurisprudence, and volumes 43-48 include a complete course of the principles of jurisprudence. Volume 49 of the collection includes some essays on rijal and transcriptions of Khoei’s lectures, among other works. Volume 50 includes his Quranic exegesis under Al-Bayan fi tafsir al-Qur'an.[21]


  • Writings and Scholarly Essays

Sayyid Abu l-Qasim al-Khoei wrote works on various issues, including Quranic sciences, jurisprudence, principles of jurisprudence, and rijal. They include:

  1. Risala fi nafahat al-i'jaz. This is a theological work that aims to prove the miraculous nature and eternity of the noble Qur'an.[22] It was written in response to the book Husn al-ijaz fi ibtal al-i'jaz (A good summary to falsify the miracle), written a person with the penname Nasir al-Din Zafir.[23] Al-Khoei wrote this essay when he was 25 years old. This was his first written work.[24]
  2. Al-Bayan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. This includes a detailed introduction concerning certain issues in Quranic sciences, as well as an exegesis of the six verses of Qur'an 1.[25] The book’s introduction includes a variety of issues, such as the virtue, miracle, and eternity of the noble Quran. Moreover, the introduction insists that the Quran was never distorted. It also considers 36 Quranic verses, which were allegedly abrogated. Al-Khoei believes that they are not abrogated.[26] According to some researchers, since its publication, al-Bayan was a center of attention in the relevant scholarly communities and a textbook of Quranic sciences in seminaries and universities.[27]
  3. Mu'jam rijal al-hadith wa-tafsil tabaqat al-rijal (literally: Encyclopedia of transmitters of hadiths and an elaboration of the generations of hadith transmitters). This is a book of rijal in 23 volumes set, which was first published in Najaf in 1398 AH.[28] It includes biographies of more than 15,000 transmitters of hadith. Under the entry for each transmitter, he mentions all people who transmitted hadiths from him (or her). The work is known as the most elaborate collection of Shiite rijal.[29]


  • Essays of Fatwa and Fatwa Works

Nearly thirty fatwa-related works from al-Khoei have been published, from an essay on dubiously unclean clothes, which was published in Najaf in 1361 AH to the book al-Masa'il al-muntakhaba, which is published in Arabic, Persian, English, Urdu, French, Indonesian, and Turkish. This is a summary of the book Minhaj al-salihin. Other jurisprudential or fatwa-related works include Tawdih al-masa'il (Clarification of the jurisprudential problems), Muntakhab al-masa'il (Selected jurisprudential problems), Manasik al-hajj (Hajj rituals) in Arabic and Persian, as well as an essay under Izalat al-muhadda 'an milk al-manafi' al-mutadadda (literally: removing the common boundary from the ownership of conflicting interests), which was written in 1351 AH.[30]

  1. Minhaj al-salihin. This work was first written as commentaries on Sayyid Muhsin al-Hakim’s Minhaj al-salihin. He then incorporated his commentaries inside the text, and finally revised the book in accordance with his own fatwas. The work was first published in Najaf in 1390 AH, and was then reprinted frequently.[31] Al-Sayyid Taqi al-Tabataba'i al-Qummi wrote an exposition for al-Khoei's Minhaj al-salihin in ten volumes. Inspired by him, some of the later Shiite jurists, particularly his students, wrote their essays of fatwas under Minhaj al-salihin.
  2. Commentaries on al-'Urwat al-wuthqa. Al-Khoei first wrote commentaries on al-'Urwat al-wuthqa (an essay of fatwas), which were compiled from his fatwa meetings with his elite students. After a complete course of teaching al-'Urwa, al-Khoei wrote another commentary on the book, one-third of which is allegedly different from the previous commentary.


  • Transcriptions of His Teachers’ Lectures

Sources mention his transcriptions (taqrirat) of lectures by two of his teachers, Mirza Muhammad Husayn al-Na'ini and Muhammad Husayn al-Isfahani, concerning jurisprudence and its principles. Aqa Buzurg Tihrani lists al-Khoei's transcriptions of the lectures of Aqa Diya' al-'Iraqi as well.[32] The best-known lecture transcriptions written by al-Khoei are those of al-Na'ini’s lectures on the principles of jurisprudence, which were first published during the lifetime of Muhammad Husayn al-Na'ini under Ajwad al-taqrirat.[33] Years later, a revised and supplemented version was published in Tehran in 1368 AH. The work is known as one of the best sources about al-Na'ini’s views in the principles of jurisprudence.[34]


  • Transcriptions of al-Khoei’s Lectures

Many of al-Khoei’s students compiled transcriptions of his lectures, some of which were published after Sayyid Abu l-Qasim al-Khoei’s review. Here are some of those lecture transcriptions:

  1. Misbah al-usul by Sayyid Muhammad Sarwar Wa'iz Bihsudi. This is a complete course of principles of jurisprudence.
  2. Dirasat fi l-usul by Sayyid 'Ali Hashimi Shahrudi. This is a transcription of the third course of al-Khoei’s lectures on principles of jurisprudence.
  3. Muhadarat fi usul al-fiqh by Muhammad Ishaq Fayyad. This was highly favored by al-Khoei.[35]
  4. Mabani l-istinbat by Sayyid Abu l-Qasim Kawkabi Tabrizi.
  5. Masabih al-usul by Sayyid 'Ala' al-Din Bahr al-'Ulum.
  6. Risala fi l-amr bayn al-amrayn (an essay on the thing between two things) by Muhammad Taqi Ja'fari. Following Akhund al-Khurasani’s practice in his Kifayat al-usul, al-Khoei discussed this theological-philosophical issue under the problem of want and will (al-talab wa-l-irada) in principles of jurisprudence.
  7. Misbah al-fiqaha fi l-mu'amalat by Muhammad 'Ali Tawhidi in jurisprudence. In his endorsement of this lecture transcription, al-Khoei praises the author’s research, astuteness, and vast knowledge.[36]

Students

Khoei and his students: in order from the left: Sayyid Murtada Hukmi, Sayyid Nasr Allah Mustanbit, Abu l-Qasim Khoei, Sayyid 'Abd Allah Shirazi, Sayyid Musa Sadr, Sayyid Ja'far Khoei

Abu l-Qasim al-Khoei had many students. According to some sources, he had more than 600 students.[37] Some of his prominent students, who were members of his group for answering the requests for fatwas, included Muhammad Ishaq Fayyad, Sadra Badkuba'i, Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr, Mirza Jawad Tabrizi, Sayyid Ali al-Husayni al-Bihishti, Sayyid Murtada Khalkhali, Sayyid Ali Husayni Sistani, Ali Falsafi Tunikabuni, Muhammad Ja'far Na'ini, and Murtada Burujirdi. Other students of al-Khoei include Abolqasim Gorji, Husayn Wahid Khurasani, Muhammad Asif Muhsini Qandahari, Sayyid Ali Hashemi Shahrudi, Sayyid Jawad Al Ali Shahrudi, Muhammad Taqi Ja'fari, Sayyid Abdolkarim Razavi Kashmiri, Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Fadl Allah, Baqir Sharif Qurashi, Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Husayni Tihrani, Bashir Husayn Najafi, Sayyid Musa Sadr, Hajj Aqa Taqi Qummi, and Sayyid 'Abd al-Karim Musawi Ardabili.[38]

Scientific Views and Opinions

Ayatollah Sayyid Abu l-Qasim al-Khoei had considerable opinions in jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence which were sometimes different from famous opinions of Shi'a jurists and according to some reports, among the fatwas of Ayatollah al-Khoei, three hundred fatwas differing in opinion from famous fatwas of Shi'a jurists can be seen.[39] Some of them are:

  • Not accepting relativeness of the beginning of lunar months: in the view of Ayatollah al-Khoei, as opposed to the famous opinion, the time for the beginning of a lunar month is the same for all people and it cannot be considered a relative issue, because the criterion for the beginning of a lunar month, according to the views of al-Khoei, was exiting the moon from waning which is an external issue and is related with the positions of the sun, the moon and the earth, and is not related with different elements and regions of the earth.[41]
  • Opposition with the frequency of a fatwa and consensus: About the frequency of a fatwa, al-Sayyid Abu l-Qasim al-Khoei has views totally different from famous views of Shi'a scholars. In the views of most usuli Shi'a scholars, if a fatwa is famous among Shi'a scholars of jurisprudence, a valid hadith in conflict with it has no validity. But, al-Khoei disagrees this rule and has not mentioned the frequency of a fatwa among preferences of the topic of conflict in principles of jurisprudence. In his view, the practical frequency does not make up for the weakness of the chain of transmission of a hadith; the same way, jurists disregard for a Authentic Hadith does not invalidate it.[42] He also questioned the validity of consensus as well; whether the reported or acquired one. However, al-Khoei considered caution in his fatwas and regarded consensus.[43]
  • Fatwas against a famous one: many of the fatwas of Ayatollah al-Khoei were different from the fatwas of most Shi'a jurists including: the permission of a woman's husband for her to leave the house, permission for a woman for abortion when there is a possibility of her own death, permission for permanent marriage of a Muslim man with a woman among the People of the Book, the initial jihad being unconditional to the presence of the Infallible Imam (a), ijtihad being no requirement for a judge and also the purity of animal skins imported from non-Muslim countries whose slaughtering of animals is doubtful.[44]

Political Actions

Al-Sayyid Abu l-Qasim al-Khoei had many political and social activities. He sent out many announcements and statements in condemnation of the actions of Pahlavi regime. He adopted policy of silence for a period of more than ten years, and then on the verge of the victory of the Islamic revolution in Iran in February 1979 backed Imam Khomeini and the Islamic revolution. Finally, al-Khoei's support for the 1991 uprisings of Shi'a in Iraq led to his house arrest.[45] Some of the most important social and political actions of Ayatollah al-Khoei are:

Positions against Pahlavi Regime

Before his authority, Sayyid Abu l-Qasim al-Khoei was an active political figure and in some cases, it is reported that he even held strong stances. In September 1962, al-Khoei sent a telegram to Muhammad Reza Shah and opposed the Bill for State and Provincial Councils and considered it against religion.[46] Also, in a message to Sayyid Muhammad Bihbahani, he emphasized that "silencing the voice of a nation by force will not last long and demagogical advertisements would not solve the problems or cure the bankrupt economy and people's dissent." Also, in reaction to the event in Faydiyya School in the middle of 1963, he sent a telegram to Muhammad Reza Shah and expressed his sadness about "the decay of the Islamic country and the policy of its rulers". One month later, in reply to the letter of some Iranian scholars, he declared the incompetency of the corrupt rulers, considered the duty of clergies heavy and regarded silence as wrong. Calling the ruling regime of Iran tyrant after the massacre of people on June 5, 1963, his rule for prohibition of participation in the election of the twenty first round of the parliament and considering it invalid, his support for Imam Khomeini after his arrest and the gossips about Imam's trial were some of his other political reactions.[47]

More than Ten Years of Silence

After Ayatollah al-Khoei became a religious authority, he withdrew from politics. This period coincided with the presence of Imam Khomeini in Najaf. His silence against the events of the 1979 revolution in Iran raised objections in Iran. His meeting with Farah Diba, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi's wife in his office on November 19, 1978 fueled these objections; but in a note to some scholars, he called this meeting sudden and involuntary.[48]

Meeting with Farah Diba

Farah Diba, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi's wife, suddenly and without permission visited Sayyid Abu l-Qasim al-Khoei on November 19, 1978, on Eid of Ghadir. This meeting was made when the Islamic revolution of people in Iran had raised and Imam Khomeini was exiled from Iraq. Meeting of Farah Diba with Ayatollah al-Khoei led to his criticism in revolutionary gatherings.[49] Therefore, in a note to Sayyid Sadiq Ruhani, he emphasized on the suddenness and involuntariness of this meeting and reminded that in this meeting, "we seriously objected about undesirable events and disasters in Iran."[50] About this meeting, Hossein Fardoust, a close friend of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, said, "Ayatollah Sayyid Abu l-Qasim al-Khoei had not responded to Farah Diba's request for meeting and Farah herself with Islamic hijab went to the house of Ayatollah al-Khoei.[51]

Solidarity with Islamic Revolution of Iran

After his meeting with Farah Diba in November, 1978, Ayatollah al-Khoei supported the Islamic revolution when the fights of people against Pahlavi regime were escalated. He also supported the Islamic Republic afterwards in different cases. Before the victory of the revolution, he addressed religious authorities, Islamic scholars and people of Iran in a statement and asked people to step forward with courage and maintaining religious standards.[52] Later, during the Iranian Islamic Republic referendum, al-Khoei called people to vote for the Islamic Republic and asked his students to participate in the affairs of the revolution. During the war of Iraq with Iran, despite the pressure of Saddam's government for supporting Iraq, he gave permission for using religious taxes for supplying the requirements of Iranian soldiers.[53]

During the Exile of Iranians from Iraq

During the exile of Iranians from Iraq in 1960s, Ayatollah al-Khoei was among the few Shi'a scholars who was not exiled. However, exiling many of his students caused a decrease in his classes. Many of Ayatollah al-Khoei's students participated in the seminary of Qom and spread their teacher's thoughts in jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence and made the seminary of Qom, previously influenced by the scientific methods of Ha'iri Yazdi and Burujirdi, familiar with the methods of al-Khoei, Mirza Na'ini, Muhaqqiq Isfahani and Aqa Diya' Iraqi in jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence.[54]

The coercive meeting of Ayatollah Khoei and Saddam Husayn after suppression of Intifada

1991 Uprisings in Iraq

The most important political action of Ayatollah al-Khoei was his accompaniment with the Shi'a uprising in Iraq when he appointed a delegation of nine persons for control of the regions under control of Shi'a. Defeat of the uprisings led to Ayatollah al-Khoei's house arrest and great pressure of the government of Iraq during the rule of Saddam.[55] Due to direct support of the uprisings of people in 1991 and appointment of the leadership council, Sayyid Abu l-Qasim al-Khoei was arrested by the Ba'ath regime and was sent to Baghdad. After two days of detention, he was sent to meet Saddam, and Saddam addressed him with offensive words.[56]

Religious and Social Services

During his role as a Shiite authority, al-Khoei used the property he had at his disposal to construct libraries, schools, mosques, Husayniyyas, dormitories, clinics, hospitals, charity institutes, and orphanages in different countries such as Iran, Iraq, Malaysia, the UK, the US, and India. The main headquarters of al-Khoei’s charity institute (al-Khoei Foundation) is in London.[57] Here are some of the Islamic centers under the supervision of al-Khoei Foundation:

  • Imam Khoei Islamic Centre, London: includes the Islamic center, Imam al-Sadiq (a) school for boys, al-Zahra (a) school for girls, a meeting hall, a public library and a bookshop. Eight hundred students study in the two schools of this foundation. In this center, al-Noor monthly journal is published in two languages Arabic and English.[58]
  • Imam Al-Khoei Foundation, New York: includes a meeting hall with the capacity of three thousand people, a library holding more than ten thousand volumes of books, a nursery school, schools for boys and girls, each with the capacity of 150 students, Iman school for learning Arabic, the Qur'an and Islamic education of children, mortuary, etc.[59]
  • Al-Khoei Islamic Foundation in Montreal: This charity institute was founded in 1989 to provide Shiite religious, cultural, and social services in different Islamic and non-Islamic countries.
  • Imam al-Khoei Cultural Complex in Mumbai: with an area of 100 thousand square meters twenty km away from Mumbai, it includes a large meeting hall, a mosque with the capacity of three thousand people, a library holding fifty thousand volumes of books and a husayniyya with the capacity of seven hundred people, a school for religious sciences with thousand students, primary and secondary schools with 1200 students and also a pharmacy and a clinic.[60]

Published Works about al-Khoei

The documentary Ayatollah was directed by Sayyid Mustafa Musawi Tabar was produced about Ayatollah Khoei, supported by Owj Arts and Media Organization. The documentary gives a sketch of Ayatollah Khoei’s life, education, and his relation to the Islamic Revolution in Iran.


External Links

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Notes

  1. Anṣārī Qumī, Nujūm-i ummat – Haḍrat-i Āyat Allāh al-Uzmā Ḥāj Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim-i Khūʾī, p. 54.
  2. Ṣadrāʾī Khūʾī, Sīmā-yi Khuy, 1374 Sh, p. 169. Pīrī Sabziwārī, Āyat Allāh al-Uzmā Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim al-Khūʾī, Qurʾānshinās-i buzurg-i muʿāṣir, p. 30.
  3. Pīrī Sabziwārī, Āyatullāh al-'uẓmā Sayyid Abu l-Qāsim Khoeī; Qurān shinās-i buzurg-i muʿāṣir, p. 41-42.
  4. Pīrī Sabziwārī, Āyat Allāh al-Uzmā Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim al-Khūʾī, Qurʾānshinās-i buzurg-i muʿāṣir, p. 30. Anṣārī Qumī, Nujūm-i ummat – Haḍrat-i Āyat Allāh al-Uzmā Ḥāj Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim-i Khūʾī, p. 57.
  5. Yādnāma-yi Haḍrat-i Āyat Allāh al-ʿUzmā Āqāy-i Ḥāj Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim-i Khoeī, 1372 Sh., p. 58-59.
  6. Yādnāma-yi Haḍrat-i Āyat Allāh al-ʿUzmā Āqāy-i Ḥāj Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim-i Khoeī, 1372 Sh., p. 58-59.
  7. Anṣārī Qumī, Nujūm-i ummat – Haḍrat-i Āyat Allāh al-Uzmā Ḥāj Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim-i Khūʾī, p. 57.
  8. Yādnāma-yi Haḍrat-i Āyat Allāh al-ʿUzmā Āqāy-i Ḥāj Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim-i Khoeī, 1372 Sh., p. 64-65.
  9. Sharīf Rāzī, Ganjīna-yi dānishmandān, vol. 2, p. 3-5; Raʾīs Zādih, Khoeī, Abu l-Qāsim, p. 515.
  10. Jaʿfarīyān, Tashayyuʿ dar ʿIrāq, marjaʿīyyat wa Irān, 1386 Sh, p. 108.
  11. Jaʿfarīyān, Tashayyuʿ dar ʿIrāq, marjaʿīyyat wa Irān, 1386 Sh, p. 51.
  12. Khātirāt-i Āyatollāh ʿAbbās Khātam-i Yazdī, 1380 Sh, p. 98-100
  13. Ḍāhir, Masīrat al-Imām al-Sayyid Mūsā al-Ṣadr, 2000, vol. 2, p. 293-294.
  14. Anṣārī Qumī, Nujūm-i ummat – Haḍrat-i Āyat Allāh al-Uzmā Ḥāj Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim-i Khūʾī, p. 59.
  15. Anṣārī Qumī, Nujūm-i ummat – Haḍrat-i Āyat Allāh al-Uzmā Ḥāj Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim-i Khūʾī, p. 61.
  16. Anṣārī Qumī, Nujūm-i ummat – Haḍrat-i Āyat Allāh al-Uzmā Ḥāj Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim-i Khūʾī, p. 62.
  17. Anṣārī Qumī, Nujūm-i ummat – Haḍrat-i Āyat Allāh al-Uzmā Ḥāj Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim-i Khūʾī, p. 65.
  18. Anṣārī Qumī, Nujūm-i ummat – Haḍrat-i Āyat Allāh al-Uzmā Ḥāj Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim-i Khūʾī, p. 62.
  19. Anṣārī Qumī, Nujūm-i ummat – Haḍrat-i Āyat Allāh al-Uzmā Ḥāj Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim-i Khūʾī, p. 63.
  20. Anṣārī Qumī, Nujūm-i ummat – Haḍrat-i Āyat Allāh al-Uzmā Ḥāj Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim-i Khūʾī, p. 64.
  21. Rayīszāda, Khoei, Abū l-Qāsim, p. 522.
  22. Pīr Chirāgh, Ayatullāh Khoei wa al-bayān, p. 76.
  23. Anṣārī Qumī, Nujūm-i ummat – Haḍrat-i Āyat Allāh al-Uzmā Ḥāj Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim-i Khūʾī, p. 69.
  24. Anṣārī Qumī, Nujūm-i ummat – Haḍrat-i Āyat Allāh al-Uzmā Ḥāj Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim-i Khūʾī, p. 70.
  25. Anṣārī Qumī, Nujūm-i ummat – Haḍrat-i Āyat Allāh al-Uzmā Ḥāj Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim-i Khūʾī, p. 70.
  26. Anṣārī Qumī, Nujūm-i ummat – Haḍrat-i Āyat Allāh al-Uzmā Ḥāj Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim-i Khūʾī, p. 70.
  27. Ayyāzī, Chih kasānī murawwij-i maktab-i āyat Allāh Khūʾī shudand?, p. 231.
  28. Pīr Chirāgh, Ayatullāh Khoei wa al-bayān, p. 76.
  29. Pīr Chirāgh, Ayatullāh Khoei wa al-bayān, p. 76.
  30. Anṣārī Qumī, Nujūm-i ummat – Haḍrat-i Āyat Allāh al-Uzmā Ḥāj Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim-i Khūʾī, p. 72-74.
  31. Rayīszāda, Khoei, Abū l-Qāsim, p. 521.
  32. Aqa Buzurg Tihrani, Ṭabaqāt aʿlām al-Shīʿa, vol. 1, p. 71-72.
  33. Aqa Buzurg Tihrani, al-Dharīʿa, vol. 1, p. 278.
  34. Rayīszāda, Khoei, Abū l-Qāsim, p. 520.
  35. Anṣārī Qumī, Nujūm-i ummat – Haḍrat-i Āyat Allāh al-Uzmā Ḥāj Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim-i Khūʾī, p. 68.
  36. Aqa Buzurg Tihrani, al-Dharīʿa, vol. 20, p. 240.
  37. Sharif, Talāmidha al-Imām al-Khoeī, p. 235-252.
  38. Rayīszāda, Khoei, Abū l-Qāsim, p. 515.
  39. Mudarrisī, Dikhālat-i Ākhund-i Khurāsānī dar Mashrūṭa mutaʿāraf-i Najaf nabūd.
  40. Fayyāḍ, "Nuāwarīhā-yi uṣūlī wa fiqhī-yi Āyatollāh Khoeī", p. 336-337.
  41. Fayyāḍ, "Nuāwarīhā-yi uṣūlī wa fiqhī-yi Āyatollāh Khoeī", p. 336-337.
  42. Fayyāḍ, "Nuāwarīhā-yi uṣūlī wa fiqhī-yi Āyatollāh Khoeī", p. 325-326. Rayīszāda, "Khoeī, Abū l-Qāsim", p. 518.
  43. Rayīszāda, "Khoeī, Abū l-Qāsim", p. 518.
  44. Rayīszāda, "Khoeī, Abū l-Qāsim", p. 518.
  45. Rayīszāda, "Khoeī, Abū l-Qāsim", p. 518.
  46. Rayīszāda, "Khoeī, Abū l-Qāsim", p. 518.
  47. Rayīszāda, "Khoeī, Abū l-Qāsim", p. 518.
  48. Rayīszāda, "Khoeī, Abū l-Qāsim", p. 518-519.
  49. Rayīszāda, "Khoeī, Abū l-Qāsim", p. 518.
  50. Rayīszāda, "Khoeī, Abū l-Qāsim", p. 518. Ṭabāṭabāyi, Sayyid Hādī. Dīdār-i purmajarā wa riwāyathā-yi mutafāwit.
  51. Hāshimīyānfar, Gūnashināsī-yi raftār-i sīyāsī-yi marājiʿ-i taqlīd, 1390 Sh, p. 224.
  52. Rayīszāda, "Khoeī, Abū l-Qāsim", p. 517.
  53. Rayīszāda, "Khoeī, Abū l-Qāsim", p. 517.
  54. Rayīszāda, "Khoeī, Abū l-Qāsim", p. 519-520.
  55. Rayīszāda, "Khoeī, Abū l-Qāsim", p. 516.
  56. Jaʿfarīyān, Khātira-yi khwāndanī darbāra-yi dastgīrī-yi Ayatollāh Khūʾī dar intifāḍa-yi Shaʿbānīyya.
  57. Anṣārī Qumī, Nujūm-i ummat – Haḍrat-i Āyat Allāh al-Uzmā Ḥāj Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim-i Khūʾī, p. 95.
  58. Islāmī, Ghurūb-i khurshīd-i fiqāhat, 1372 Sh, p. 42.
  59. Yādnāma-yi Haḍrat-i Āyat Allāh al-ʿUzmā Āqāy-i Ḥāj Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim-i Khoeī, 1372 Sh., p. 117-118.
  60. Yādnāma-yi Haḍrat-i Āyat Allāh al-ʿUzmā Āqāy-i Ḥāj Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim-i Khoeī, 1372 Sh., p. 119-121.

References

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