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Imam Ja'far b. Muhammad al-Sadiq (a)

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Ja'far b. Muhammad
6th Shi'a Imam
Al-Sadiq (the truthful)
بقیع10.jpg
Kunya Abu 'Abd Allah
Born Rabi' I 17, 83/April 24, 702
Birthplace Medina
Imamate From Dhu l-Hijja 7, 114/1 February, 733(for 34 years)
Contemporary Rulers Hisham b. 'Abd al-Malik, al-Walid b. Yazid b. 'Abd al-Malik, Marwan b. Muhammad, Abu l-'Abbas al-Saffah, al-Mansur al-Dawaniqi
Martyrdom Shawwal 25, 148/December 18, 765 in Medina
Cause of Martyrdom by poisoning
Burial Place Al-Baqi' cemetery,
24°28′1″N 39°36′50.21″E / 24.46694°N 39.6139472°E / 24.46694; 39.6139472
Successor Musa b. Ja'far
Father Muhammad b. 'Ali (a)
Mother Umm Farwa
Spouse(s) Fatima, Hamida
Son(s) Musa, Isma'il, 'Abd Allah, 'Ali, al-'Abbas
Daughter(s) Asma', Umm Farwa
The Twelve Imams
'Ali, al-Hasan, al-Husayn, al-Sajjad, al-Baqir, al-Sadiq, al-Kazim, al-Rida, al-Jawad, al-Hadi, al-'Askari, al-Mahdi

Jaʿfar b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn (a) (Arabic: جعفر بن محمد بن علي بن الحسین), (b. 83/704 – d. 148/765) known as Imām al-Ṣādiq (a) (الإمام الصادق), is the sixth Imam of Shi'a and the fifth Imam of Isam'ilis. His Imamate was concurrent with the reign of the last five Umayyad caliphs (that is, from Hisham b. 'Abd al-Malik onwards) and with that of the first two Abbasid caliphs, al-Saffah and al-Mansur al-Dawaniqi. Because of the weakness of the Umayyad rule at his time, Imam al-Sadiq (a) was able to have relatively wider scholarly activities. His companions, students, and those who quoted hadiths from him is said to have amounted to four-thousand people. Most of the hadiths of Ahl al-Bayt (a) recorded in Twelver Shiite hadith collections are from Imam al-Sadiq (a). This is why Twelver Shiism is called Ja'fari School.

Imam al-Sadiq (a) has had a high status in the eyes of prominent Sunni scholars. Abu Hanifa and Malik b. Anas were among the people who quoted hadiths from him. The former considered him the most knowledgeable person among Muslims. In 1378 AH, Shaykh Mahmud Shaltut, the president of al-Azhar, recognized the Ja'fari school as a legitimate Islamic school of jurisprudence.

Despite the weakness of the Umayyads and the requests from the Shi'a, Imam al-Sadiq (a) did not find the situation suitable to revolt against the caliphate. He rejected Abu Muslim al-Khurasani and Abu Salama, who asked him to become the caliph. He did not take part in the revolt of his uncle Zayd b. 'Ali either and discouraged the Shi'a from getting involved in any uprisings. However, he did not have good relations with the caliphs of his time either, and he had to do taqiyya because of their persecution.

To facilitate his contacts with the Shi'a, Imam al-Sadiq (a) established the network of wikala (deputyship). The activities of this network continued and increasingly expanded until the end of the Minor Occultation.

During Imam al-Sadiq's (a) time, the Ghulat became very active. The Imam (a) vehemently opposed them, declaring them infidels or polytheists.

The Imam (a) was summoned several times to Baghdad, and thus he traveled to Iraq and also visited Karbala, Najaf, and Kufa. He showed the grave of Imam Ali (a), which was previously unknown, to his companions.

Some Shiite scholars believe that Imam al-Sadiq (a) was poisoned by al-Mansur al-Dawaniqi and thus martyred.

He introduced Imam al-Kazmi (a) to his companions as his successor, but to protect the life of Imam al-Kazim (a), he mentioned in his will five people, including al-Mansur, as the executors of his will. After the martyrdom of Imam Al-Sadiq (a), several sects appeared among the Shi'a, including Ismailis, Fatahiyya, and Nawusiyya.

Lineage and Birth

Ja'far b. Muhammad b. 'Ali b. al-Husayn b. 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) was the sixth Imam of Shi'a[1] and the fifth Imam of Isma'ilis.[2] His father was Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (a). His mother was Fatima or Qariba who is known by her Kunya Umm Farwa. She was the daughter of al-Qasim b. Muhammad b. Abi Bakr son of Muhammad b. Abi Bakr.[3] Imam al-Sadiq (a) is reported to have said, "Abu Bakr begot me twice."[citation needed] Some scholars explain this by saying that it refers to the fact that the Imam's (a) mother was a descendant of Abu Bakr both from her mother's and her father's sides. However, some scholars such as Allama Shushtari and al-Allama al-Majlisi do not consider this hadith authentic.[4]

He was born on Rabi' I 17, 83/April 24, 702 in Medina.[5] Some historians and biographers have mentioned his birth in 80/699.[6] Twelve years of his life were contemporary with his grandfather and nineteen years of it were contemporary with his father and his imamate period was thirty four years.[7]

Family tree of Ahl al-Bayt (a)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Khadija
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
Mariya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Qasim
 
'Abd Allah
 
Lady Fatima
 
 
 
Ibrahim
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam Ali
 
 
 
 
Umm al-Banin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Husayn
 
 
Imam al-Hasan
 
Lady Zaynab
 
Umm Kulthum
 
Muhsin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-'Abbas
 
Abd Allah
 
Uthman
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
'Awn
 
Ali
 
Al-'Abbas
 
Umm Kulthum
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Hasan
 
Al-Qasim
 
'Abd Allah
 
Fatima
 
Zayd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
'Abd Allah
 
Zaynab
 
Ibrahim
 
Al-Hasan
 
al-Hasan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
Ibrahim
 
Idris
 
 
 
 
 
Nafisa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Sajjad
 
'Ali al-Akbar
 
'Ali al-Asghar
 
Fatima
 
Sukayna
 
Ruqayya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Baqir
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zayd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Sadiq
 
'Abd Allah
 
Ibrahim
 
'Ubayd Allah
 
'Ali
 
Yahya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Kazim
 
Muhammad
 
Ali
 
Ishaq
 
Umm Farwa
 
'Abd Allah
 
Isma'il
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Rida
 
Ma'suama
 
Hamza
 
Ishaq
 
Ahmad
 
Ibrahim
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
Imam al-Jawad
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Hadi
 
Musa
 
Fatima
 
Hakima
 
Amama
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-'Askari
 
Husayn
 
Muhammad
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
Imam al-Mahdi
 
 


Kunya and Titles

His famous Kunya was Abu 'Abd Allah (because of his second son, 'Abd Allah al-Aftah). In some sources, other kunyas such as Abu Isma'il (because of his eldest son, Isma'il) and Abu Musa (because of his son Musa al-Kazim (a)) are mentioned.[8]

His famous title was al-Sadiq which means "truthful".[9] According to a hadith, the Prophet (s) gave this title to Imam (a) to distinguish him from Ja'far al-Kadhdhab.[10] According to an analysis of the history, Imam al-Sadiq (a) was titled "al-Sadiq" because he (a) avoided any involvement in the uprisings of his time, especially in comparison with 'Abd Allah b. al-Hasan who was Imam's (a) rival among the descendants of Imam al-Hasan (a) and made an uprising against Abbasids and later was called "al-Kadhdhab" (the liar).[11] Malik b. Anas, Ahmad b. Hanbal, and al-Jahiz mentioned the Imam (a) by this title.[12]

Other titles have also been mentioned for Imam (a) including al-Sabir, al-Tahir, and al-Fadil.

Wives and Children

al-Shaykh al-Mufid listed 10 children for him:[13]

Wife Lineage Children Comments
Hamida daughter of Sa'id or Salih Musa, Ishaq, Muhammad Musa al-Kazim (a) is the seventh imam of Twelver Shi'as[14]
Fatima daughter of al-Husayn b. 'Ali b. al-Imam al-Husayn (a) Isam'il, 'Abd Allah, Umm Farwa 'Abd Allah claimed imamate after the demise of Imam al-Sadiq (a) and his followers are known as Fatahiyya.[15] Isma'il died in the lifetime of his father, but a group didn't accept his demise and were named Isma'ilis.[16]
Concubines - 'Abbas, 'Ali, Asma', Fatima these children were from different concubines[17]

Imamate

Imam al-Sadiq's (a) Imamate 114-148
Contemporary Rulers with Imam al-Sadiq (a)


The life of Imam al-Sadiq (a) was simultaneous with the reign of the last ten Umayyad caliphs, including 'Umar b. 'Abd al-'Aziz and Hisham b. 'Abd al-Malik, and the reign of the first two Abbasid caliphs, al-Saffah and al-Mansur al-Dawaniqi.[18]

Imam al-Sadiq (a) accompanied his father on the latter's travel to Syria when Imam al-Baqir (a) was summoned by Hisham b. 'Abd al-Malik.[19]

During Imam al-Sadiq's (a) imamate, the Umayyad rule became weak and eventually fell, and then the Abbasids came to power. The weakness of the rulers created a good opportunity for the Imam (a) to engage in scholarly activities.[20] This relatively free environment existed only in the third decade of the second/eighth century; the Imam (a) and his followers were under great pressure before that under the Umayyads and also after it because of the revolt of Muhammad an-Nafs al-Zakiyya and his brother Ibrahim. [21]

Imamate of Imam al-Sadiq (a) was 34 years[22] Imam al-Sadiq (a) was martyred ten years after the beginning of the rule of al-Mansur al-Dawaniqi by him.[23]

Imam (a) was at least once summoned by al-Mansur to Iraq and went there accompanied by Safwan al-Jammal[24] and was forced to stay there for a while.[25]

Proofs for Imamate

Several people have narrated from Imam al-Baqir (a) about the imamate of his son Ja'far among whom are Hisham b. Salim, Abu l-Sabah al-Kanani, Jabir b. Yazid al-Ju'fi and 'Abd al-A'la mawla Al Sam.[26]

Al-Shaykh al-Mufid wrote that "In addition to the Imam al-Baqir's (a) will about the imamate of his son Ja'far, his superiority and merits in knowledge, piety, and practice over all his brothers, cousins and all other people of his time prove his imamate."[27]

Wikala Network

Since the Shia were scattered in different parts of the Muslim territories and it was difficult for them to be directly in touch with the Imam (a), Imam al-Sadiq (a) appointed a number of representatives (wakil) for different regions,[28] who were responsible for transferring the khums, zakat, and donations of the Shia to the Imam (a) and also for taking their questions and messages to the Imam (a) and the Imam's (a) response back to them.[29]

The network of representatives, which continued its function until the death of Muhammad b. 'Ali al-Samuri, the fourth representative of Imam al-Mahdi (a), is sometimes referred to as the Wikala Network.[30]

Opposing the Ghulat

At the time of Imam al-Baqir (a) and Imam al-Sadiq (a), the Ghulat expanded their activities.[31] They believed that the Imams were gods or prophets. Imam al-Sadiq (a) strongly rejected these ideas; he prohibited his followers from interacting with the Ghulat[32] and proclaimed them infidels and polytheists.[33] According to a hadith, the Imam (a) said: "Do not socialize with them; do not eat, drink, or shake hands with them."[34] The Imam (a) warned: "Be careful lest the Ghulat corrupt your youth. They are the worst enemies of God. They belittle God, but attribute lordship to God's servants."[35]

Scientific Movement

Because of the weakness of the Umayyads at the time of Imam al-Sadiq (a), the Imam was relatively free to teach and engage in scholarly activities.[36] This religious and scholarly freedom rarely happened during the time of the other Imams, and thus most of our hadiths are from Imam al-Sadiq (a).[37] According to Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, people learned and transmitted a great deal of knowledge from him, and his fame reached far and wide.[38] Al-Jahiz also wrote that "his knowledge and jurisprudence have filled the world."[39] Al-Hasan b. 'Ali al-Washsha' reports that he saw nine-hundred people in the mosque of Kufa transmitting hadiths from Imam al-Sadiq (a).[40]

Ja'fari School

Most of the Shiite hadiths, whether in fiqh or theology, are from Imam al-Sadiq (a),[41] and the number of the people who transmitted hadiths from him (4000, according to al-Irbili) is greater than the number of hadith transmitters from any other Imam.[42] According to Aban b. Taghlib, the Shia would refer to the words of Imam Ali (a) when they disagreed about a saying of the Prophet (s) and would refer to the sayings of Imam al-Sadiq (a) when they disagreed about Imam Ali's (a) words.[43]

Because of the significant role of Imam al-Sadiq (a) in the elaboration of Islamic teachings, Twelver Shiism is often called Ja'fari School[44] and the Imam (a) is known as its head.

In 1378/1958-59, Shaykh Mahmud Shaltut, the head of al-Azhar, recognized the Ja'fari School of jurisprudence as a legitimate Islamic school and proclaimed following it permissible.[45]

Scholarly Dialogues and Debates

In Shiite hadith collections, some dialogues or debates between Imam al-Sadiq (a) and scholars from other faith traditions are reported.[46] In some of these debates, the Imam's (a) students debated and the Imam (a) oversaw the debate and sometimes engage in it.[47] For instance, in a debate with a scholar from Damascus, who had requested to debate with the Imam's (a) students, the Imam (a) asked Hisham b. Salim to have a debate with him on theology.[48] In another occasion, the Imam (a) told a person who wanted to debate with him to debate with his students first. The man debated with Humran b. A'yan about the Quran, with Aban b. Taghlib about Arabic literature, with Zurara about jurisprudence, and with Mu'min al-Taq and Hisham b. Salim about theology and was defeated by all of them.[49]

Ahmad b. Ali al-Tabrisi has collected some of the debates of Imam al-Sadiq (a), some of which are the following:

  • A debate with an atheist on the existence of God
  • A debate with Abu Shakir al-Daysani on the existence of God[50]
  • A debate with Ibn Abi l-Awja' on the existence of God[51]
  • A debate with Ibn Abi l-Awja' on the world's creation in time[52]
  • A lengthy debate with an atheist on different religious issues[53]
  • A debate with Abu Hanifa on the methodology of jurisprudence, especially on analogy.[54]
  • A debate with some Mu'tazili scholars on how to choose a ruler and on some religious rulings.[55]

Political Manner

From the life of Imam al-Sadiq (a), it can be learned that he (a) kept himself away from politics and kept this position in both Umayyad and Abbasid times.[56] However, while Imam (a) kept away from political rivalry, he (a) was very attentive to the society and its destiny, and he (a) advised rulers about justice in the government, consultation with people and caring about their requests.

Refraining from Uprising

Despite the weakness of the Umayyads at his time, Imam al-Sadiq (a) stayed away from uprising and political conflicts. According to al-Shahrastani, Abu Muslim al-Khurasani sent a letter to the Imam (a) after the demise of Ibrahim al-Imam, calling him the one who deserves the caliphate most and inviting him to accept the caliphate. However, the Imam (a) wrote to him: "You are not one of my helpers, and the time is not my time."[57] Abu Salama also wrote a similar letter to the Imam (a), and the Imam (a) burned his letter in response.[58] Imam al-Sadiq (a) did not participate even in the uprising of his uncle Zayd b. 'Ali.[59] According to a hadith, the Imam (a) mentioned the lack of faithful supporters as the reason why he refused to revolt.[60]

Disagreement with 'Abd Allah al-Mahd

Toward the end of the rule of Umayyads, some of [[[Banu Hashim]] including 'Abd Allah al-Mahd and his sons and also al-Saffah and al-Mansur gathered in Abwa' to give allegiance to a person among themselves. In that session, 'Abd Allah introduced his son as "al-Mahdi" and asked others to give allegiance to him. When Imam al-Sadiq (a) was informed about their intention, told 'Abd Allah, 'If you think your son is al-Mahdi, [you are wrong] he is not al-Mahdi, and it is not the time for the coming of al-Mahdi (a) yet." 'Abd Allah became angry and accused him of envy. Imam al-Sadiq (a) swore that his words were not out of envy and foretold that the rule will be for al-Saffah and al-Mansur and 'Abd Allah and his sons will be killed.[61]

Relationship with the Caliphs

Although Imam al-Sadiq (a) refused to revolt against the caliphs of his time, he did not have a good relationship with them. In one occasion, when the Imam (a) was on pilgrimage, he proclaimed Ahl al-Bayt (a) as God's chosen servants and mentioned the hostility of the caliph Hisham b. Abd al-Malik towards Ahl al-Bayt (a).[62] In response to the Abbasid caliph al-Mansur al-Dawaniqi, who had asked Imam al-Sadiq (a) to visit him like other people do, the Imam (a) wrote, "We do not have something to fear you for, you do not have anything of the hereafter for which we should have hopes in you, you are not in a blessing to congratulate you for, and you do not think that you are in affliction to send you our condolences. So why should we be around you?!"[63]

Burning the House of Imam al-Sadiq (a) According to a report, when al-Hasan b. Zayd was the governor of Mecca and Medina, he set fire to the house of Imam Sadiq (a). In the fire, the door and the corridor of the house burned. The Imam (a) came out of the house crossing the fire saying, "I am the son of the Roots of the Earth [i.e., Isma'il (a)]; I am the son of Ibrahim, God's Friend."[64]

Using Taqiyya

Except the third decade of the second century (fifth decade of the eighth century AC), which coincided with the fall of the Umayyad caliphate, both the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs kept the activities of the Imam (a) under watch. Political pressure on the Imam (a) reached its peak towards the end of the Imam's (a) life.[65] According to some reports, al-Mansur's agents would persecute those Shiites who were in touch with the Imam (a) and even execute them. Because of these persecutions, the Imam (a) and his companions had to use taqiyya. [66]

According to a report, when Sufyan al-Thawri visited him, Imam al-Sadiq (a) advised him to leave because they were under watch.[67] According to a hadith, the Imam (a) told Aban b. Taghlib to respond to people's jurisprudential questions by giving them the opinions of Sunni scholars in order not to be persecuted.[68] Also, several hadiths have been transmitted from Imam al-Sadiq (a) which emphasize the importance of taqiyya, according to some of which taqiyya is equal to prayer.[69]

Moral Characteristics

There are many reports about the moral characteristics of Imam al-Sadiq (a), including his asceticism, generosity, abundant worship, and recitation of the Quran.[70] Malik b. Anas, the head of the Maliki school of jurisprudence reports that during the time he used to visit Imam al-Sadiq (a), the Imam (a) was always in one of the three states: praying, fasting, or saying dhikr.[71]

It is reported that the Imam (a) gave four hundred dirhams to a beggar, and when he thanked the Imam (a), he (a) gave him his ring which was worth 10,000 dirhams.[72] According to another report, the Imam would put some bread, meat, and money in a bag and would take it to the houses of the poor and divide it between them, without letting them know who he was.[73] Abu Ja'far al-Khath'ami reports that Imam al-Sadiq (a) gave him a bag of money and asked him to give it to someone from Banu Hashim without telling him from where the money was coming. When Abu Ja'far gave the money to that man, he prayed for the sender and told him that this person always sends him money, but Imam al-Sadiq (a) never sends him anything even though he is rich![74]

Travel to Iraq

During the reign of al-Saffah and al-Mansur, Imam al-Sadiq (a) was summoned to Baghdad several times. In these travels, the Imam (a) also visited Karbala, Najaf, Kufa, and Hira.[75] According to a report by Muhammad b. Ma'ruf al-Hilali, when the Imam (a) visited Hira, a great number of people went to see him such that he could not get the chance to visit the Imam for several days.[76]

The Imam's (a) mihrab in the Mosque of Kufa, located on the eastern side of the mosque near the grave of Muslim b. Aqil, and also his mihrab in al-Sahla Mosque are among his memorials in Iraq.[77] Imam al-Sadiq (a) also visited the grave of Imam al-Husayn (a) in Karbala.[78] On the banks of the Husayniyya river in Karbala, there is a building, inside which is a memorial mihrab for Imam al-Sadiq (a). [79]

Revealing the Location of Imam Ali's (a) Grave

It is reported that Imam al-Sadiq (a) visited the grave of Imam Ali (a)[80] and showed its location, which was previously hidden, to some of his companions. According to al-Kulayni, the Imam took Yazid b. 'Amr b. Talha to a place between Najaf and Hira and showed him the grave of Imam Ali (a).[81] Al-Shaykh al-Tusi also reports that Imam al-Sadiq (a) visited Imam Ali's (a) grave and prayed beside it and told Yunus b. Zabyan that it was the grave of Amir al-Mu'minin (a).[82]

Companions, Students, and Transmitters of Hadiths

In his Rijal, al-Shaykh al-Tusi mentioned the name of 3200 people as the transmitters of hadiths from Imam al-Sadiq (a).[83] Al-Shaykh al-Mufid in al-Irshad extended the count of his transmitters to 4000.[84] It is said that Ibn 'Uqda, have mentioned names of 4000 transmitters in a book about the students of Imam al-Sadiq (a).[85]

Most of al-Usul al-arba'ami'a were written by the students of Imam al-Sadiq (a)[86] and most of People of Consensus were among his students.[87]

Some of the most famous students of Imam al-Sadiq (a) are:

Some of his companions were expert in specific fields. Humran b. A'yan was expert in Qur'anic sciences, Aban b. Taghlib in Arabic literature, Zurara b. A'yan in fiqh, Mu'min al-Taq and Hisham b. Salim were expert in theology.[88] Other students of Imam al-Sadiq (a) who were experts in theology are Humran b. A'yan, Qays al-Masir, and Hisham b. al-Hakam.[89]

Students

Some of the important Sunni scholars were among the students of Imam al-Sadiq (a). According to al-Shaykh al-Saduq, Malik b. Anas said that he used to go to Imam al-Sadiq (a) and listen to the hadiths that the Imam (a) quoted.[90] In his al-Muwatta', Malik has quoted some hadiths on the authority of Imam al-Sadiq (a).[91]

Ibn Hajar al-Haytami says that Sunni scholars such as Yahya b. Sa'id, Ibn Jurayh, Malik b. Anas, Sufyan b. 'Uyayna, Sufyan al-Thawri, Abu Hanifa, Shu'ba b. al-Hajjaj, and Ayyub al-Sakhtiyani have narrated from Imam al-Sadiq (a).[92]

Well-Known Hadiths

Some of the well-known hadiths of Imam al-Sadiq (a) are the following:

  • Tawhid al-Mufaddal: This lengthy hadith reportedly contains the contents of the Imam's (a) teachings delivered in four sessions to al-Mufaddal b. 'Umar on themes such as the creation of the world, the creation of man, wonders of the animal world, wonders of the heavens and earth, the reality of death, and the wisdom behind the creation of man. Since the expression "Fakkir ya Mufaddal" (Think, o Mufaddal!) repeats in it, this treatise used to be called Kitab Fakkir.
  • Hadith 'Inwan al-Basri: In this hadith, Imam al-Sadiq (a) reportedly gives instructions on self-purification, patience, and knowledge to a person called Inwan al-Basri.[93]

Written Works

In some sources, a number of letters and treatises are attributed to Imam al-Sadiq (a). The authenticity of some of these works cannot be ascertained, but some of them are reported in sources such as al-Kafi and therefore can be regarded as authentic with high probability. The following are among these works:

  • The letter of Imam al-Sadiq (a) to his companions. This treatise, which is recorded in al-Kafi, contains the instructions of the Imam (a) to his companions on different matters.
  • Risalat shara'i' al-din, transmitted on the authority of al-A'mash. This treatise is on the theological and practical teachings of Islam, reported by Ibn Babawayh.
  • Part of a letter on exegesis
  • Part of a letter to the supporters of qiyas (analogy) and its critique
  • Risala al-Ihlilaja. This treatise purportedly records Imam al-Sadiq's (a) discussion with an Indian physician on the existence of God. Al-Najashi has mentioned this work by the title Bad' al-khalq wa-l-hathth 'ala al-i'tibar.
  • An exegetical work known as Tafsir al-Imam al-Sadiq (a).
  • Tafsir al-Nu'mani.[96]

There are also collections of sayings attributed to the Imam (a) and reportedly compiled by his students, some of the published ones are:

  • Al-Ja'fariyyat, or al-Ash'athiyyat written by Muhammad b. Muhammad b. al-Ash'ath
  • Nathr al-durar, its text is mentioned in Tuhaf al-'uqul.
  • Al-Hikam al-Ja'fariyya
  • A collection of short sayings narrated by Salman b. Ayyub which text is mentioned in Fara'id al-simtayn.[97]

In the View of Sunni Scholars

Imam al-Sadiq (a) has had a high place in the eyes of Sunni scholars. Abu Hanifa, one of the prominent Sunni leaders, considered the Imam as the most knowledgeable Muslim and the greatest jurist among them.[98] According to Ibn Abi l-Hadid, great Sunni scholars such as Abu Hanifa, Ahmad b. Hanbal, and al-Shafi'i were directly or indirectly the students of Imam al-Sadiq (a).

However, in Sunni jurisprudence, the viewpoints of Imam al-Sadiq (a) have not been given their due importance, and Shiite scholars such as al-Sharif al-Murtada criticized Sunni scholars for this. [99]

Martyrdom

There is no mention of the Imam's (a) martyrdom in many early Shi'i and Sunni sources,[100] and some scholars, such as al-Shaykh al-Mufid, held that the Imam's (a) demise was a natural death. However, many scholars maintain that Imam al-Sadiq (a) was martyred, referring to the hadith which states that all the Imams (a) are martyred.[101] Al-Shaykh al-Saduq clearly states that the Imam (a) was poisoned by al-Mansur al-Dawaniqi and passed away as a result.[102]

It is mentioned in al-Fusul al-muhimma, Misbah al-Kaf'ami and other sources that Imam al-Sadiq (a) was given poison.[103] In al-Manaqib, Ibn Shahrashub has written that al-Mansur gave him poison since he hated Imam (a) so much and feared that people would turn to him.[104]

His demise was on Shawwal 25, 148/December 18, 765 at the age of 65. Another report mentions his demise in the middle of Rajab or Shawwal. He was buried in the al-Baqi' Cemetery beside his father, Imam al-Baqir (a), his grandfather Imam al-Sajjad (a) and his uncle Imam al-Hasan (a).[105] Ibn Qutayba has recorded his martyrdom in 146/764.[106] which is considered as an error.

Will

Many hadiths indicate that Imam al-Sadiq (a) introduced Imam al-Kazim (a) as his successor and the executor of his will to his close companions several times.[107] However, because of the persecutions of the Abbasids and to protect the life of Imam al-Kazim (a), the Imam (a) mentioned five people in his will, including the Abbasid caliph, as its executors.[108]

As a result, even some of the prominent companions of the Imam (a) became hesitant for a short time about who his successor was. Some of them first went to 'Abd Allah al-Aftah and asked him questions, but his answers did not convince them. Afterward, they met Imam al-Kazim (a) and were satisfied by his answers that he was the true successor of Imam al-Sadiq (a).[109]

Schism among the Shi'a

After the martyrdom of Imam al-Sadiq (a), a number of sects emerged among the Shi'a. One group denied the death of Isma'il, the son of Imam al-Sadiq (a), and regarded him as the Imam after his father. A number of people in this group, who gave up the belief that Isma'il was alive, maintained that his son Muhammad was the Imam. This group was later called the Ismailiyya. Another group believed in the imamate of Abd Allah al-Aftah and were called Fatahiyya, but when Abd Allah passed away in just seventy days after his father, they accepted the imamate of Imam al-Kazim (a). Another group, following a person called Nawus, did not accept any other Imams after Imam al-Sadiq (a) and were known as the Nawusiyya. Another group believed in the Imamate of Muhammad al-Dibaj. [110]

See Also

Notes

  1. Jaʿfarīyān, Ḥayāt-i fikrī sīyāsī-yi imāmān-i Shīʿa, p. 391.
  2. Ṣābirī, Tārīkh-i firaq-i Islāmī, vol. 2, p. 110, 119.
  3. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 180.
  4. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 29, p. 651-652.
  5. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 180
  6. See: Irbilī, Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 2, p. 691.
  7. Ṭabrisī, Iʿlām al-warā, vol. 1, p. 514.
  8. Pākatchī, "Imam Jaʿfar Ṣādiq (a)", p. 181.
  9. Pākatchī, "Imam Jaʿfar Ṣādiq (a)", p. 181.
  10. Ṣadūq, Kamāl al-dīn, p. 319.
  11. Pākatchī, "Imam Jaʿfar Ṣādiq (a)", p. 181.
  12. Pākatchī, "Imam Jaʿfar Ṣādiq (a)", p. 181.
  13. See: Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 209.
  14. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 307-311.
  15. Shahristānī, al-Milal wa l-niḥal, vol. 1, p. 148.
  16. Ashʿarī, al-Maqālāt wa l-firaq, p. 213-214.
  17. See: Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 209.
  18. Shahīdī, Zindigānī-yi Imām Ṣādiq Jaʿfar b. Muḥammad (a), p. 4.
  19. Shahīdī, Zindigānī-yi Imām Ṣādiq Jaʿfar b. Muḥammad (a), p. 6.
  20. Shahīdī, Zindigānī-yi Imām Ṣādiq Jaʿfar b. Muḥammad (a), p. 47.
  21. Jaʿfarīyān, Ḥayāt-i fikrī sīyāsī-yi imāmān-i Shīʿa, p. 435.
  22. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 180.
  23. Ṭabrisī, Iʿlām al-warā, vol. 1, p. 514.
  24. See: Thaqafī, al-Ghārāt, vol. 2, p. 850-856.
  25. Shahristānī, al-Milal wa l-niḥal, vol. 1, p. 147.
  26. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 180-181.
  27. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 182.
  28. Jabbārī, Sāzmān-i wikālat-i aʾimma, vol. 1, p. 47-50.
  29. Jabbārī, Sāzmān-i wikālat-i aʾimma, vol. 1, p. 280, 320, 322.
  30. Jabbārī, "Barrasī-yi sāzmān-i daʿwat-i ʿabbāsīyān", p. 75-104.
  31. Jaʿfarīyān, Ḥayāt-i fikrī sīyāsī-yi imāmān-i Shīʿa, p. 407.
  32. Jaʿfarīyān, Ḥayāt-i fikrī sīyāsī-yi imāmān-i Shīʿa, p. 407-408.
  33. Kashshī, Rijāl, p. 300.
  34. Kashshī, Rijāl, p. 297.
  35. Ṭūsī, al-Amālī, p. 650.
  36. Shahīdī, Zindigānī-yi Imām Ṣādiq Jaʿfar b. Muḥammad (a), p. 47-60.
  37. Shahīdī, Zindigānī-yi Imām Ṣādiq Jaʿfar b. Muḥammad (a), p. 61.
  38. Ibn Ḥajar al-Haythamī, al-Ṣawāʿiq al-miḥriqa, p. 551.
  39. Jāḥiẓ, Rasāʾil al-Jāḥiẓ, p. 106.
  40. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 39.
  41. Pākatchī, " Imām Jaʿfar Ṣādiq (a)", p. 205.
  42. Irbilī, Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 2, p. 701.
  43. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 12.
  44. Shahīdī, Zindigānī-yi Imām Ṣādiq Jaʿfar b. Muḥammad (a), p. 61.
  45. Bīāzār Shīrāzī, Hambastigī-yi madhāhib-i Islāmī, p. 344.
  46. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 79, 80, 171-173; Mufīd, al-Ikhtiṣāṣ, p. 189, 190.
  47. See: Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 79, 80, 171-173.
  48. See: Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 79, 80, 171-173.
  49. Kashshī, Rijāl, p. 275-277.
  50. Ṭabrisī, al-Iḥtijāj, vol. 2, p. 331-333.
  51. Ṭabrisī, al-Iḥtijāj, vol. 2, p. 333.
  52. Ṭabrisī, al-Iḥtijāj, vol. 2, p. 335-336.
  53. Ṭabrisī, al-Iḥtijāj, vol. 2, p. 336.
  54. Ṭabrisī, al-Iḥtijāj, vol. 2, p. 360-362.
  55. Ṭabrisī, al-Iḥtijāj, vol. 2, p. 362-364.
  56. Shahīdī, Zindigānī-yi Imām Ṣādiq Jaʿfar b. Muḥammad (a), p. 4.
  57. Shahristānī, al-Milal wa l-niḥal, vol. 1, p. 179.
  58. Masʿūdī, Murūj al-dhahab, vol. 3, p. 254.
  59. Pākatchī, "Imām Jaʿfar Ṣādiq (a)", p. 183-184.
  60. Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 4, p. 237.
  61. Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 185-186.
  62. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 46, p. 306.
  63. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 47, p. 184.
  64. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 473.
  65. Jaʿfarīyān, Ḥayāt-i fikrī sīyāsī-yi imāmān-i Shīʿa, p. 435.
  66. Jaʿfarīyān, Ḥayāt-i fikrī sīyāsī-yi imāmān-i Shīʿa, p. 435.
  67. Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 4, p. 248.
  68. Kashshī, Rijāl, p. 330.
  69. Fattāl al-Niyshābūrī, Rawḍat al-wāʿiẓīn, vol. 2, p. 293.
  70. Irbilī, Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 2, p. 691.
  71. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 47, p. 16.
  72. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 47, p. 61.
  73. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 4, p. 8.
  74. Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 4, p. 273.
  75. Muẓaffar, al-Imām al-Ṣādiq, vol. 1, p. 126-130.
  76. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 47, p. 93-94.
  77. Muẓaffar, al-Imām al-Ṣādiq, vol. 1, p. 129.
  78. Muẓaffar, al-Imām al-Ṣādiq, vol. 1, p. 130.
  79. Muẓaffar, al-Imām al-Ṣādiq, vol. 1, p. 130.
  80. Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 6, p. 35-36.
  81. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 4, p. 571.
  82. Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 6, p. 35.
  83. Ṭūsī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, vol. 2, p. 419-679.
  84. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 254.
  85. Qummī, al-Kinā wa l-alqāb, vol. 1, p. 358.
  86. Pākatchī, "Jaʿfar Ṣādiq (a) Imām", p. 187.
  87. Pākatchī, "Jaʿfar Ṣādiq (a) Imām", p. 187.
  88. Kashshī, Rijāl, p. 275-277.
  89. Pākatchī, "Jaʿfar Ṣādiq (a) Imām", p. 199.
  90. Ṣadūq, al-Khiṣāl, p. 168.
  91. Mālik b. Anas, al-Muwaṭṭaʾ, p. 10.
  92. Ibn Ḥajar al-Haytamī, al-Ṣawāʿiq al-miḥriqa, vol. 2, p. 586.
  93. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 1, p. 224-226.
  94. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 67.
  95. Khomeini, al-Ḥukūma al-Islāmīyya, p. 115-121.
  96. Pākatchī, "Imām Jaʿfar Ṣādiq (a)", p. 218-219.
  97. Pākatchī, "Jaʿfar Ṣādiq (a) Imām", p. 218-219.
  98. Dhahabī, Tadhkirat al-ḥuffāẓ, vol. 1, p. 126.
  99. Pākatchī, "Imām Jaʿfar Ṣādiq (a)", p. 206.
  100. Pākatchī, " Imām Jaʿfar Ṣādiq (a)", p. 187.
  101. Pākatchī, " Imām Jaʿfar Ṣādiq (a)", p. 187.
  102. Ṣadūq, al-Iʿtiqādāt, p. 98.
  103. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 47, p. 1-2.
  104. Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 4, p. 280.
  105. Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 4, p. 210; Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 180.
  106. Ibn Qutayba, al-Mʿārif, p. 215.
  107. Kashshī, Rijāl, p. 282, 283.
  108. Pīshwāyī, Sīra-yi pīshwāyān, p. 414.
  109. Kashshī, Rijāl, p. 282, 283.
  110. Nawbakhtī, Firaq al-Shīʿa, p. 66-79.

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Further Reading

Name Titles Kunya Day of Birth Year of
Birth
Birth
place
Day of Martyrdom Year of
Martyrdom
Place of
Martyrdom
Imamate Duration of
Imamate
Mother's name
'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) Amir al-Mu'minin Abu l-Hasan 13 Rajab/1 October 30 'Am al-fil/600 Ka'ba 21 Ramadan/31 January 40/661 Kufa 11/632-40/661 29 years Fatima bt. Asad
al-Hasan b. 'Ali (a) Al-Mujtaba Abu Muhammad 15 Ramadan/4 March 3/625 Medina 28 Safar/30 March 50/670 Medina 40/661-50/670 10 years Lady Fatima (a)
al-Husayn b. 'Ali (a) Sayyid al-Shuhada' Abu 'Abd Allah 3 Sha'ban/11 January 4/626 10 Muharram/10 October 61/680 Karbala 50/670-61/680 10 years
'Ali b. al-Husayn (a) al-Sajjad, Zayn al-'abidin Abu l-Hasan 5 Sha'ban/9 January 38/658 25 Muharram/24 October 95/713 Medina 61/680-95/713 35 years Shahrbanu
Muhammad b. 'Ali (a) Baqir al-'ulum Abu Ja'far 1 Rajab/13 May 57/677 7 Dhu l-Hijja/1 February 114/733 95/713-114/733 19 years Fatima
Ja'far b. Muhammad (a) al-Sadiq Abu 'Abd Allah 17 Rabi' I/24 April 83/704 25 Shawwal /18 December 148/765 114/733-148/765 34 years Fatima
Musa b. Ja'far (a) al-Kazim Abu l-Hasan 7 Safar/12 November 128745 25 Rajab/5 September 183/799 Kadhimiyya 148/765-183/799 35 years Hamida al-Barbariyya
'Ali b. Musa (a) al-Rida Abu l-Hasan 11 Dhu l-Qa'da/2 January 148/766 End of Safar/9 September 203/818 Mashhad 183/799-203/818 20 years Najma
Muhammad b. 'Ali (a) al-Taqi, al-Jawad Abu Ja'far 10 Rajab/12 April 195/811 End of Dhu l-Qa'da/29 November 220/835 Kadhimiyya 203/818-220/835 17 years Sabika
'Ali b. Muhammad (a) al-Hadi, al-Naqi Abu l-Hasan 15 Dhu l-Hijja/10 March 212/828 3 Rajab/2 July 254/868 Samarra 220/835-254/868 34 years Samana al-Maghribiyya
al-Hasan b. 'Ali (a) al-Zakiyy, al-'Askari Abu Muhammad 10 Rabi' II/8 December 232/846 8 Rabi' I/5 January 260/874 254/868-260/874 6 years Hudayth
Hujja b. al-Hasan (a) al-Qa'im Abu l-Qasim 15 Sha'ban/2 August 255/289 Samarra
Since 260/874 up to(1439)
Narjis