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Wilaya

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Shia Islam
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Wilāya (Arabic:الولاية) and its paronyms, literally meaning guardianship, are widely used in the Qur'an to mean administration and authority. Wilaya is sometimes an act by God, which is the same as monotheism and counts as a Divine Attribute. Such a wilaya, which is known as generative guardianship consisting in a causal relationship between the creator and creatures, is exclusively attributed to God. Wilaya is essential to God. Thus, wilaya of some prophets and Infallible Imams is a manifestation of God's wilaya.

Sometimes wilaya is legislative (tashri'i) and conventional, that is, making the laws of the created world. This type of wilaya is also exclusive to God.

Wilaya is sometimes a human action, in which case it is a legislative wilaya. This type of wilaya is discussed in jurisprudence, including wilaya (guardianship) over mahjur people (or wards) and wilaya on elites or wilaya al-faqih (guardianship of the jurist).

Shiite theologians believe that not all prophets had wilaya. According to Qur'anic verses, only some prophets, such as the Prophet Muhammad (s) and Abraham (a), had the position of wilaya. They also appeal to the principle of grace (Qa'ida al-Lutf) to show that God merely should introduce the "wali" (the person who has wilaya). The Principle implies that the wali be infallible and be introduced by another infallible person, such as a prophet.

Although in mysticism, wilaya counts as an internal aspect of the religion and a hidden treasure, some people maintain that any wayfarer of the mystical path can reach the position of wilaya after traveling the stages of the spiritual journey. Wilaya is the position of proximity to God that, according to some other people, is exclusive to the Prophet (s) and Infallible Imams (a).

Wilaya as Guardianship

The majority of philologists take "wilaya" to mean guardianship or friendship.[1] According to some scholars, the contexts of some verses of the Qur'an give a reason to interpret "wilaya" as guardianship.[2] Wilaya as guardianship and administration, which is significant in the Shiite thought, is of two kinds: Wilaya over objects, and wilaya over persons. An instance of the former is wilaya over the property or possessions of a deceased person, and instances of the latter include a wali's guardianship over all financial affairs of a child or a madman, or the wilaya of God and His messengers, such as some prophets and Infallible Imams (a) in mundane and afterlife affairs of believers.[3]

The Qur'an's Approach to "Wilaya"

The term, "wilaya" and its paronyms are said to be among the most widely used words in the Qur'an.[4] Although its paronyms, such as "wali" and "mawla", have been used in various meanings in the Qur'an 233 times (110 times in verb forms and 123 in noun forms),[5] the word "wilaya" has occurred only two times in the Qur'an;[6] once in Qur'an 8:72 and once again in Qur'an 18:44, in both of which it is written as "walaya".[7] Some people hold that there is no difference between "walaya" (وَلایة) and "wilaya" (وِلایة); both meaning closeness and guardianship. However, there are people who maintain that "walaya" means Lordship, love, victory, friendship, and connection, whereas "wilaya" means guardianship and rule. Moreover, "walaya" is said to be exclusive to God, while "wilaya" applies to creatures.[8]

'Allama Tabataba'i believes that "wilaya" in the Qur'an does not mean love; instead, it means administration and guardianship.[9] One of the most important Qur'anic verses for the Shi'a is said to be the verse 55 of the Qur'an 5, known as the Wilaya Verse. According to many Shiite scholars and some Sunni scholars, such as al-Zamakhshari, al-Tabari, al-Niyshaburi, and al-Fakhr al-Razi, the verse was revealed about Imam 'Ali (a).[10]

Wilaya as a Social, Political, and Spiritual Principle

It is reported that there are many hadiths in which wilaya is considered to be one of the most fundamental and important tenets of the religion,[11] because it is concerned with the administration and rule of religious affairs, whether they are internal or external, bodily or spiritual, worldly or otherworldly, material or non-material, social or concerned with worship. All these issues are components of Islam over which the Prophet (s) had wilaya.[12]

Wilaya is believed to be very significant for the Shiite thought, because there are hadiths according to which wilaya is a condition for the validity of religious practices.[13]

Also, wilaya is believed to be a very important issue in the tradition of the Prophet (s), because he made recommendations about wilaya more than he did about anything else. There are a number of hadiths, such as Hadith al-'Ashira, Hadith of Anas, Hadith al-Ghadir, Hadith al-Manzila, Hadith al-Thaqalayn, Hadith al-Safina, etc. in which the Prophet (s) recommended about wilaya.[14] Moreover, the Third Testimony in Shiism, that is bearing witness for the wilaya of Imam 'Ali (a) in adhan and iqama, after bearing witness for the unity of God and the prophethood of the Prophet Muhammad (s), signifies the importance of wilaya in the Shiite thought. This has been regarded as heretical by Sunni scholars, although there is evidence that the Third Testimony was recited by people, such as Salman and Abu Dhar, during the life of the Prophet (s) as well.

Imamate: Specific Wilaya

Main article: Imamate

"Imamate" is said to mean rule and government.[15] In verses of the Qur'an and hadiths from the Infallibles (a), the word means a leader and a spiritual role-model or a person whose sayings and actions are reliable, as well as a political leader, which is also referred to as "wali al-amr" (administrator of affairs).[16] It is claimed that wilaya has not been discussed independently of the problem of imamate; wilaya or guardianship over all believers is said to have been discussed as a component of imamate.[17]

Some Shiite scholars do not distinguish wilaya from imamate. For example, in his book, Ayat-i wilayat dar Qur'an (Verses of wilaya in the Qur'an), Makarim Shirazi uses the words, "wilaya" and "imamate" interchangeably. Also, in his Payam-i Qur'an (the message of the Qur'an), he introduces general and specific wilaya as imamate and leadership. In his book, Wilayat-i faqih, Jawadi Amuli also uses the terms, "imamate" and "wilaya," interchangeably.[18] Moreover, in his Imamat wa rahbari (imamate and leadership), Morteza Motahhari takes imamate to mean wilaya.[19] However, some contemporary scholars hold that it is a degradation of the position of imamate to reduce it to wilaya or administration of mundane affairs, since imamate is primarily concerned with religious, rather than mundane, affairs, just like prophethood.[20]

Not All Prophets Have Wilaya

The position of prophethood is not equivalent to that of wilaya and administration.[21] Thus, some scholars, such as al-Shaykh al-Tusi, maintain that prophets do not necessarily have wilaya and the right to administer people's affairs only by virtue of their prophethood. Only some prophets had wilaya over people. Wilaya in this sense is inseparable from imamate.[22] Al-Shaykh al-Tusi's position was taken by al-Shaykh al-Mufid to be agreed upon by the majority of Shiite scholars.[23] Contrary to other scholars, Muqaddas Ardabili does not differentiate between a prophet and an Imam, holding that the only difference between them is that a prophet receives revelations, while a wali or Imam does not.[24]

There is no Qur'anic verse in which prophets are introduced as guardians or walis over people, except a few of them who had a position higher than prophethood,[25] such as the Prophet Muhammad (s) and Abraham (a).[26] The Qur'an 2:247 states that there were only few prophets, such as David (a), Solomon (a) and Muhammad (s) who were both prophets and rulers (or kings) at the same time.[27]

On the contrary, it is believed by some others that it is impossible for a prophet not to have wilaya, because it would lead to the possibility of sins by prophets.[28] Mirjahani believes that according to the Shiite thought, a prophet should be infallible against sins, and whoever is infallible is ipso facto a wali. Thus, since prophets were infallible, they were walis as well. Thus, prophethood without wilaya is impossible. However, it is not the case that every infallible person is a prophet. Thus, wilaya without prophethood is possible.[29]

Wilaya as an Act of God

There are a number of verses in the Qur'an, such as the Qur'an 2:257, Qur'an 8:7, Qur'an 3:68, Qur'an 47:11,Qur'an 8:40, Qur'an 22:22, Qur'an 66:4, and Qur'an 13:11, that refer to God's administration and guardianship (wilaya) of the world.[30]

An important theological problem is wilaya as an act of God. It was discussed by some theologians within the issues of imamate, and by others as an independent issue.[31] Examples of independent theological issues regarding wilaya, which have been written throughout the Islamic intellectual history, include the work of people such as al-Tirmidhi, al-Tabari, al-Mawardi, and Ibn Qutayba.[32]

God's Wilaya as Identical with His Unity

"Wali" is a Divine Attribute, which is essential to God, just like His Unity, because the world would not come to existence without wilaya, and even if it comes to existence, it would not persist without wilaya.[33] Thus, true wilaya is that of God.[34] There are a number of occasions, in which the attribute of wilaya has been imputed to God in the Qur'an. For example, Qur'an 42:9 emphasizes that true wilaya exclusively belongs to God.[35] This is endorsed by 'Allama Tabataba'i. He believes that the verse points to the exclusiveness of wilaya to God and the obligation of taking God as the wali.[36]

The Human Caliphate on the Earth is Authorized by God

It is held by many Shiite scholars that the human caliphate (khilafa) or succession on the Earth amounts to the human being becoming an example of divine attributes, inheriting His exclusive wilaya.[37] There are conditions to be met by a person to obtain this position.[38] Since wilaya is exclusive to God, it is not possessed by anyone other than God except when it is authorized by God Himself.[39] Thus, the human wilaya is horizontal, as pointed out in the Qur'an.[40] The Qur'an has identified the obedience of prophets and Ulu l-Amr with the obedience of God, because their wilaya was authorized by God.[41] Thus, since it is obligatory to obey God, it is also obligatory to obey those whose wilaya is authorized by God.[42]

An Infallible's Wilaya as Identical with God's Wilaya

The wilaya of Infallibles (a) is believed by some Shi'as to be identical with God's wilaya.[43] This is not to say that they have a wilaya independently of God; instead, their wilaya is a manifestation of God's wilaya. That is, the wilaya of the Infallibles (a) is identical with God's wilaya as manifested in them.[44] Their wilaya is authorized by God.[45] Thus, it is obligatory for everyone to obey them just as it is obligatory to obey God, as implied by Ulu l-Amr Verse and Wilaya Verse.[46]

Infallibility as a Necessary Condition for Wilaya

Wilaya has been discussed by many Shiite theologians under the issues of imamate. They hold that the appointment of the Imam as the wali or guardian of believers is necessitated by the Principle of Grace (qa'idat al-lutf).[47] The principle implies that God should do everything that is necessary to bring people closer to belief and obedience and prevent them from disbelief and sins.[48] Thus, the existence of prophets is necessary, because without a prophet people would never be aware of divine commands and prohibitions.[49] The principle also implies that Infallible Imams (a) should be introduced by God, because the presence of the Imam is necessary for the above purposes.[50]

Thus, according to the Divine Grace, the appointment of a religious and political leader in the Islamic community is necessary.[51] Such a political and religious leader should be Infallible against sins and mistakes,[52] because since people tend to trespass the rights of others, the political leader should be infallible in order to prevent people from corruptions and disobedience. Otherwise, the Principle of Grace would be violated.[53] A specific condition for a wali is that he should be introduced by an Imam or a prophet, because a wali should be infallible, and a person's infallibility is only known by someone who has the knowledge of the hidden.[54]

Forms of Wilaya

Generative Wilaya

Generative Wilaya (wilaya takwini) is that wilaya which allows the wali or guardian to administer and plan the affairs of all things in any way that he pleases. It also means to possess the power and ability to affect ontological affairs and to have the ability to administer the natural order of the World and to disrupt its usual system.[55]

Wilaya in ontology (takwin) is specific to Allah and according to Tawhid Rabubi it is He alone, by means of His Wilaya, who has the power to control the world and thus manifests His guardianship and lordship in many different forms. Concerning the ontological wilaya of Allah, the Qur'an says that He is the guardian (wali) of the believers and it is He who takes them out of darkness and into light.

Allah in the Holy Qur'an, on many occasions, proclaims that Wilaya is confined solely to Him and that looking towards others is no benefit and only brings about lose and disappointment. In a verse He says that the oppressors have no guardian or helper and has severely reprimanded those people who take others as their guardian and helper instead of Him; He then says that only Allah is the guardian of the servants and it is Him who will bring the dead back to life and has power over all things.

Legislative Wilaya

Legislative Wilaya (wilaya tashri'i) has both a general and a specific meaning. Its general meaning is any form of guardianship that does not necessitates the interference in the ontological affairs of the World. This definition of Wilaya comprises Wilaya Tafsiri, Wilaya Siyasi and the specific meaning of legislative wilaya; this wilaya is the opposite of Generative wilaya in that its acceptance is voluntary and has no enforcement at all. In this way the Qur'an explains that the acceptance of Allah's religion and Wilaya is voluntary and that those who reject and do not accept His Wilaya are outside of it i.e. His guardianship and introduces Himself as the guardian of only those who believe.

'Allamah Tabatabai, in explaining this form of wilaya, says: legislative wilaya means to legislate and propagate, develop the Ummah and to rule and judge in their affairs and differences. It is this meaning that Allah calls His prophets the guardians of the believers.

In its specific meaning, legislative wilaya means to establish and set the legislations and rules of religion. This form of wilaya has many different forms, of which some are specific to the Prophet (s), whilst others are specific to religious leaders. According to narrations, this right has also been entrusted to the Imams (a).

In some narrations it states that the Prophet (s) on a few occasions, himself, established the religious ruling. For example, the third and fourth units of a four unit prayer where made compulsory by the Prophet (s). However, this form of legislative wilaya at times encompasses the setting of a ruling as a primary ruling and at other times is it a specific governmental instance or an external referent or the collaboration of an external referent with a ruling that needs to be established. An example of this was during a specific era during the Caliphate of Imam Ali (a) who, because of the requirements of the government at that time, levied zakat on horses, that who according to the primary ruling should not have paid zakat on them. This action of Imam Ali (a) was in the form of a governmental ruling and not primary ruling.

There is however, a difference of opinion on how this wilaya is implemented. Some are of the opinion that this wilaya i.e. Legislative wilaya in establishing primary rulings is solely in the possession of Allah and no one else, not even the Prophet (s) has the ability to establish primary religious rulings. However, others are of the opinion that there are exceptions to the rule, and that the Prophet (s) and the Infallible Imams (a) are a part of this exception.

Wilaya Ijtima'i

Wilaya Ijtama'i means that a person has the right of guardianship and leadership over a society and its political structures. According to the verses of the Qur'an, it is only Allah who has the right to rule and it is He alone who possesses the station of guardianship and wilaya over His servants. This matter includes all the forms and types of wilaya and hence also political and societal wilaya. However, from the point of view that Allah cannot govern the material world directly, he has entrusted this wilaya to a few of His servants, Therefore, Allah has raised a few individuals to this position and based upon His directions and commands, they guide and lead the society towards perfection.

This station was not confined to only a few prophets, even thou only a handful of them had the governance of the society at their disposal and were the leaders of the society. The Prophet (s) was the last prophet who, for the period of ten years while in Medina, was also able to possess the political leadership of the society. After him (s), and according to narrations, this station was given to the Imams (a) by the command of Allah. This command occurred at Ghadir Khum, when the Prophet (s) was ordered to inform the masses of the leadership and Imamate of Imam Ali (a) and take the oath of allegiance from them for him (a). This order held such importance, that in the continuation of the verse it was revealed to the Prophet (s) that if he did not perform this order, all his previous efforts would have been wasted and it would have been as if he never performed the message of Allah.[56] It is upon this basis that the Shiite believe that after the Prophet (s), the position of societal leadership is entrusted to the Infallible Imams only and no one else has a right to claim such a position.

Wilaya Tafsiri

This form of wilaya is given to a special group of Allah's servants, who by means of 'Ilm Ladunni and God inspired knowledge, have the responsibility of explaining and clarifying the verses of the Revealed Books, removing any misconceptions about them and to guard and protect the religion of Allah from interpolation and alteration in its teachings and rulings. During their lifetimes, the Prophets of Allah, who were assigned to partake in propagation, had the responsibility of performing this task. This responsibility and duty was placed on the shoulders of the majority of prophets who were sent for the guidance of people. These individuals were occupied with explaining the Words of Allah and the laws of the previous prophets.

This position, that is a due to them being the religious authority and which necessitates the decisive proof of their speech in explaining the Book of Allah and the propagation of His religion, after the Prophet (s) was compounded as one of the responsibilities and duties of the Twelve Imams (a).

Awliya (Guardians)

  1. Allah: Based upon religious edicts, it is Allah who is the essential and primary guardian, whose wilaya has not been taken from anyone or anything else. The Qur'an in many verses alludes to this matter as can be seen in Qur'an 2:257.
  2. The Prophets (a): Their wilaya is an extension of the wilaya of Allah and it is only by means of His permission that they are able to implement it over His creation. This wilaya includes all the forms of wilaya except legislative wilaya in its specific meaning concerning the setting of primary legislation. However, the Prophet (s) was the only prophet who, on certain occasions, was allowed to exercise this wilaya in setting primary legislation. Occasions such as the adding of the third and fourth rak'as of a four rak'a prayer, the third rak'a of the Maghrib prayer, the daily recommended prayers and the recommendation of fasting for three days in every month.
  3. The Infallible Imams (a): Their wilaya is an extension of the Prophet's (s) wilaya and they have the authority to implement it. Their wilaya includes Generative Wilaya, Wilaya Tafsiri, Wilaya Siyasi and the leadership of the Ummah.
  4. A Qualified Jurist: According to narrations, some jurists, who possess the relevant characteristics, have the permission to implement wilaya. This type of wilaya is known as Wilaya al-Faqih or the Guardianship of the Jurist.

In jurisprudential sources, a limit type of wilaya has been ordained for a special group of people, for example the wilaya that a father or paternal grandfather have over their child or grandchild or the wilaya of a believer over a mentally challenged or foolish person. The difference between this wilaya and the previous ones is in its confinement to specific instances.

Mystical Journey without Wilaya is Pointless

Wilaya is considered as a main element of Islamic mysticism.[57] Spiritual journey is said to make no sense without wilaya.[58] It is widely held that the mystical notion of wilaya is rooted in the teachings of the Prophet (s) and Imams (a).[59] An investigation of Sufi sources shows that "wilaya" has been interpreted differently in different branches of Sufism in accordance with their principles.[60]

Wilaya is believed by many Sufis to be the internal aspect of the religion and the reality of servanthood for God. On the one hand, it implies the servants' proximity to, and friendship with, God,[61] and on the other hand, God's proximity to His servants and all entities in the world.[62] The interior of wilaya is said by mystics to be a hidden treasure (kanz khafi) with different degrees and an unknown nature, because it is incomprehensible and indefinable.[63] The highest degree of wilaya is the position of proximity to, or "sustaining togetherness" (al-ma'iyya al-qayyumiyya) with, God. The position is obtained when a person overcomes his or her self in order to meet God, annihilating his or her self on the path of God.[64] The position is believed by some people to be exclusive to the Prophet (s) and Infallible Imams (a), but it was denied by those who consider it to be achievable by every traveler of the spiritual path.[65]

According to al-Jami, there are two types of wilaya: general and specific. The former is common to all believers, and the latter is exclusive to those who have traveled the stages of the spiritual journey and arrived at its final stages, that is, the annihilation in God.[66] Sufi sources imply that wilaya is an acquired position, which can be obtained by traveling the stages of the spiritual journey and arriving at the stage of annihilation in God. However, the Shi'as believe that "wali" should be appointed by God. Thus, it is not an acquired position.[67]

Wilaya as a Religious and Mundane Position according to Sunnis

Al-Himadi maintains that the majority of Sunni jurists have used "wilaya" to mean rule and kingdom in such a way that includes imamate and all jurisprudential ancillaries regarding wilaya.[68] Moreover, he claims that the word has also been used in other meanings, such as deputyship.[69] However, the majority of Sunni exegetes of the Qur'an and theologians have attempted to interpret "wilaya" in Qur'anic verses and hadiths, and in particular in Qur'an 5:55 (al-Wilaya Verse), as victory and love.[70] "Wilaya" in the latter verse has been interpreted in Tafsir al-Tabari, Tafisir al-minar, and Tafsir al-Maraghi as victory.[71] However, al-Fakhr al-Razi has interpreted it as love.[72] Thus, contrary to the Shi'a, they believe that the main origin of the issue of imamate is jurisprudence, which is concerned with actions of the accountable person (mukallaf), and it has no place in theology. Thus, discussions of imamate in some Sunni theological books are taken to be mere responses to rival views in this regard.[73]

Some Sunni scholars allegedly hold that people bring wilaya to whomever they elect as a leader or imam, and since that person is elected by people, it is endorsed by the Islamic shari'a as well. Thus, imamate or wilaya consists, in fact, in a contract between the Umma (Islamic nation) and the Imam. The ruling of the shari'a is the endorsement of the elected person, rather than appointing an imam.[74]

A Contemporary Discussion

Recently a discussion has been proposed in discussing the wilaya of the Imams (a) and its relationship to the finality of the Prophet (s). Some are of the opinion that belief in the wilaya of the Imams (a), be it Generative Wilaya, legislative or even Tafsiri, is in contradiction to the finality of the Prophet (s).

In response, answers have been given by the theologians in opposition to this opinion. Based on those answers, wilaya does not contradict finality in any way but is also the most important characteristic of the Infallible Imams (a). Therefore, by means of the continuation of Islam and its perfection and completion, and by taking into consideration the small amount of time the Prophet (s) had to propagate the roots and branches of Islam, it is in need of an Imam whose speech and words will be a decisive proof for people to hold onto. So this Imam must possess wilaya in both explaining and interpreting the religion and its laws.

See Also

Notes

  1. Ibn Manẓūr, Lisān al-ʿArab, vol. 15, p. 406; Ṭurayḥī, Majmaʿ al-baḥrayn, vol. 1, p. 455.
  2. Ṭabāṭabāyī, Tarjuma-yi tafsīr al-Mīzān, vol. 6, p. 16.
  3. Jawādī Āmulī, Wilayat-i Faqīh, p. 120-132; Ṭabāṭabāyī, Tarjuma-yi tafsīr al-Mīzān, vol. 6, p. 16; Ṭāhirī Khurramābādī, Wilāyat wa rahbarī dar Islām, p. 85.
  4. Imāmat Pazhūhī, p. 49.
  5. Imāmat Pazhūhī, p. 193.
  6. Imāmat Pazhūhī, p. 195.
  7. Imāmat Pazhūhī, p. 196-198.
  8. Imāmat Pazhūhī, p. 195.
  9. Ṭabāṭabāyī, Tarjuma-yi tafsīr al-Mīzān, vol. 18, p. 26-27.
  10. Raḥīmī Iṣfahānī, Wilāyat wa rahbarī, vol. 3, p. 119-121.
  11. Ṭāhirī Khurramābādī, Wilāyat wa rahbarī dar Islām, p. 126.
  12. Ḥusaynī Tihrānī, Imām shināsī, vol. 2, p. 206.
  13. Makārim Shīrāzī, Āyāt-i wilāyat dar Qurʾān, p. 70.
  14. Ḥusaynī Tihrānī, Imām shināsī, vol. 2, p. 206.
  15. Ṭāhirī Khurramābādī, Wilāyat wa rahbarī dar Islām, p. 129.
  16. Ṭāhirī Khurramābādī, Wilāyat wa rahbarī dar Islām, p. 129.
  17. Imāmat Pazhūhī, p. 176.
  18. Jawādī Āmulī, Wilayat-i Faqīh, p. 144, 145, 152-153, 160-161 etc.
  19. Motahhari, Imāmat wa rahbarī, p. 55-57.
  20. Imāmat Pazhūhī, p. 49.
  21. Ḥusaynī Tihrānī, Imām shināsī, vol. 1, p. 36.
  22. Ṭūsī, al-Rasāʾil al-ʿashr, p. 111-114.
  23. Imāmat Pazhūhī, p. 60.
  24. Imāmat Pazhūhī, p. 60.
  25. Ḥusaynī Tihrānī, Wilāyat-i faqīh dar ḥukūmat-i Islāmī, vol. 1, p. 35.
  26. Ḥusaynī Tihrānī, Wilāyat-i faqīh dar ḥukūmat-i Islāmī, vol. 1, p. 35.
  27. Imāmat Pazhūhī, p. 59.
  28. Mīrjahānī Ṭabāṭabāyī, Wilayat-i kullīya, p. 12.
  29. Mīrjahānī Ṭabāṭabāyī, Wilayat-i kullīya, p. 12.
  30. Ḥusaynī Tihrānī, Wilāyat-i faqīh dar ḥukūmat-i Islāmī, vol. 1, p. 21-23.
  31. Imāmat Pazhūhī, p. 177.
  32. Imāmat Pazhūhī, p. 177.
  33. Ḥusaynī Tihrānī, Imām shināsī, vol. 5, p. 128.
  34. Ḥusaynī Tihrānī, Imām shināsī, vol. 5, p. 128.
  35. Jawādī Āmulī, Wilayat-i Faqīh, p. 131.
  36. Ṭabāṭabāyī, Tarjuma-yi tafsīr al-Mīzān, vol. 17, p. 27.
  37. Ṭāhirī Khurramābādī, Wilāyat wa rahbarī dar Islām, p. 108-109.
  38. Ṭāhirī Khurramābādī, Wilāyat wa rahbarī dar Islām, p. 129.
  39. Jawādī Āmulī, Wilayat-i Faqīh, p. 133.
  40. Jawādī Āmulī, Wilayat-i Faqīh, p. 132.
  41. Jawādī Āmulī, Wilayat-i Faqīh, p. 133.
  42. Ṭāhirī Khurramābādī, Wilāyat wa rahbarī dar Islām, p. 111.
  43. Ḥusaynī Tihrānī, Wilāyat-i faqīh dar ḥukūmat-i Islāmī, vol. 1, p. 93.
  44. Ḥusaynī Tihrānī, Wilāyat-i faqīh dar ḥukūmat-i Islāmī, vol. 1, p. 94; Jawādī Āmulī, Wilayat-i Faqīh, p. 133.
  45. Jawādī Āmulī, Wilayat-i Faqīh, p. 134.
  46. Ḥusaynī, Wilāyat-i ʿalawī, p. 98.
  47. Ḥillī, Kashf al-murād, p. 362; Ḥusaynī Tihrānī, Imām shināsī, vol. 2, p. 121.
  48. Ḥillī, Kashf al-murād, p. 363; Ṭūsī, al-Iqtiṣād fī-mā yataʿallaq bi-l-iʿtiqād, p. 130.
  49. Ḥillī, Kashf al-murād, p. 349-350; Ḥusaynī Tihrānī, Imām shināsī, vol. 2, p. 121.
  50. Ḥillī, Kashf al-murād, p. 362; Ḥusaynī Tihrānī, Imām shināsī, vol. 2, p. 122.
  51. Ḥakīm, al-Imāma wa Ahl al-Bayt, p. 107.
  52. Ḥakīm, al-Imāma wa Ahl al-Bayt, p. 111; Ḥillī, Kashf al-murād, p. 364.
  53. Manṣūrī Lārījānī, ʿAqīq-i wilāyat, p. 33.
  54. Ḥakīm, al-Imāma wa Ahl al-Bayt, p. 111; Ḥillī, Kashf al-murād, p. 366.
  55. Jawādī Āmulī, Wilayat-i Faqīh, p. 132.
  56. O Apostle! Communicate that which has been sent down to you from your Lord, and if you do not, you will not have communicated His message, Qur'an 5:67
  57. Manṣūrī Lārījānī, ʿAqīq-i wilāyat, p. 42.
  58. ʿAbd Allāhī & Nājī, "Nigarishī taḥlīlī bar mafhūm-i wilāyat", p. 76.
  59. Manṣūrī Lārījānī, ʿAqīq-i wilāyat, p. 37.
  60. ʿAbd Allāhī & Nājī, "Nigarishī taḥlīlī bar mafhūm-i wilāyat", p. 84.
  61. Nasafī, Kashf al-ḥaqāʾiq, p. 79.
  62. Manṣūrī Lārījānī, ʿAqīq-i wilāyat, p. 37.
  63. Manṣūrī Lārījānī, ʿAqīq-i wilāyat, p. 37.
  64. Jurjānī, Taʿrīfāt, p. 329.
  65. ʿAbd Allāhī & Nājī, "Nigarishī taḥlīlī bar mafhūm-i wilāyat", p. 76.
  66. Jāmī, Nafaḥāt al-uns, p. 301.
  67. ʿAbd Allāhī & Nājī, "Nigarishī taḥlīlī bar mafhūm-i wilāyat", p. 84.
  68. Ḥammād, Naẓarīyyat al-wilāya, p. 8.
  69. Ḥammād, Naẓarīyyat al-wilāya, p. 8.
  70. ʿAbd Allāhī & Nājī, "Nigarishī taḥlīlī bar mafhūm-i wilāyat", p. 78.
  71. Ṭabarī, Tafsīr al-Ṭabarī, vol. 6, p. 343; Rashīd Riḍā, Tafsīr al-Manār, vol. 6, p. 443; Marāghī, Tafsīr, vol. 6, p. 143.
  72. Fakhr al-Rāzī, al-Tafsīr al-kabīr, vol. 12, p. 27.
  73. Pīshafard, "Taḥlīlī az wāzha-yi wilāyat", p. 12.
  74. Pīshafard, "Taḥlīlī az wāzha-yi wilāyat", p. 12.

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