Arafa (Arabic: عَرَفَة) is the ninth day of Dhu l-Hijja, the last month of Hijri calendar, and the day before Eid al-Adha. According to Shi'a jurisprudence pilgrims of Hajj must stay in Arafat from the noon to sunset of this day. The day of Arafa is one of the most important days of year for Muslims. Special rituals have been reported for this day in hadiths, the best of which is praying and asking for forgiveness, most of Shi'as recite the Supplication of Arafa by Imam al-Husayn (a) in the day. According to Shi'a, performing Ziyara of Imam al-Husayn (a) is recommended on this day.
Ziyara Ashura' • Ziyara Warith • Amin Allah • al-Jami'a al-Kabira • Al Yasin
Takbir • Tahmid • Tahlil • Tasbih • Tasbih of Lady Fatima (a) • Salawat • al-Yunusiyya • Istighfar
al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya • Mafatih al-jinan • Misbah al-mutihajjid • Iqbal al-a'mal • Miftah al-falah
|Days and Months|
Laylat al-Qadr • 15th Sha'ban • 'Arafa • Ramadan • Rajab • Dhu l-Hijja
Arafa (عَرَفَة) is derived from the Arabic word "Araf-a" (َعَرَف) meaning knowing, understanding and learning. Apparently, the name of this day has been taken from Arafat (a special place near Mecca where pilgrims of Hajj stay for a specific time in.).
Importance and Merits
- In the day of Arafa, pilgrims of Hajj gather in Arafat and in addition to praying and asking for forgiveness, they thank God for giving them the opportunity of performing Hajj. Due to the importance of this day, many supplications have been reported for it from Imams (a) and religious elites. Even in some sources a supplication has been narrated from the Prophet (s). One of the most famous supplications of this day is the one narrated from Imam al-Husayn (a). Many Shi'a around the world read this supplication on this day. Another famous supplication for this day is the one recited by Imam al-Sajjad (a).
- Many hadiths described Arafa as a special day of forgiving the sins.
- It has also been described as the day of answering prayers.
- Shi'a infallible Imams (a) honored and respected this day and advised people to do so. They did not refuse the poor on this day.
- In Imamiyya jurisprudence it is obligatory for pilgrims of Hajj to stay in Arafat from the noon to the sunset of this day. This action which is called "Wuquf in Arafat" is among essentials of Hajj, which means if a pilgrim does not stay in Arafat - even for a short time - his Hajj will be void.
- Sunni sects have different opinion about the time of Wuquf (staying in Arafat):
- 1. From the sunset of the day of Arafa to the dawn of the day of Eid al-Adha (next day)
- 2. From the dawn of Arafa to the dawn of Eid al-Adha
- 3. From the noon of Arafa to the dawn of Eid al-Adha
Recommended Practices in Arafa
Hadiths have mentioned recommended acts for the day of Arafa; some of which are:
- Praying and asking for forgiveness, which are the best acts in this day. Among the supplications and prayers, the supplication of Imam al-Husayn (a) in this day has been recommended highly.
- Ghusl (ritual bath)
- Ziyara of Imam al-Husayn (a)
- Giving charity
- Staying over the night of Arafa until the dawn of the day of Arafa in Mina (for pilgrims of Hajj).
- Rāghib al-Iṣfahānī, Mufradāt, p. 560.
- Qurayshī, al-Tahqīq fī kalimāt al-Qur'ān al-karīm, vol. 8, p. 120.
- Ṣadūq, Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh, vol. 2. pp. 542-543.
- Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 4, p. 146, 541.
- Ṣadūq, Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh, vol. 2, p. 211.
- Ṣadūq, Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh, vol. 2, p. 211.
- Mūsawī Shāhrūdī, Jāmiʿal-fatāwā, pp. 173-174.
- Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol. 13, pp. 559-560.
- Ṣadūq, Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh, vol. 1, p. 77.
- Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 4, p. 580; Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol. 14, p. 459; Qummī, Mafātīḥ al-jinān, p. 451.
- Ṣadūq, Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh, vol. 3, p. 113.
- Ṭūsī, al-Istibṣār, vol. 2, p. 133.
- Ṣadūq, Maʿānī al-akhbār, p. 296.
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- Qummī, Shaykh ʿAbbās. Mafātīḥ al-jinān. Translated by Hādī Ashrafī Tabrīzī. Qom: Āʾīeen-i Dānish, [n.d].
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- Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Maʿānī al-akhbār. Qom: Intishārāt-i Jāmiʿa-yi Mudarrisīn, 1361 Sh.
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- Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Al-Istibṣār fīmā ikhtalafa min al-akhbār. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1390 AH.