Al-Qāʾim (Arabic: القائم; literally meaning: who stands up) is a title of Imam al-Mahdi (a) indicating his promised uprising in the End Time. Although in many hadiths the title refers to Imam al-Mahdi (a), in others, it refers to other Imams (a) as well, which means a person who stands up for God's orders. Some Shi'as in 2nd/eighth and 3rd/ninth centuries thought that some Imams or their children were the promised al-Qa'im and were expecting their reappearance.
In some hadiths, "Qa'im Al Muhammad" (the standing [person] of the family of Muhammad) is used as a title of Imam al-Mahdi (a). But in others it is not used so; rather it is used as generally referring to a person who stands up or rises up for justice. In his al-Kafi, al-Kulayni wrote a chapter under "all Imams were al-Qa'im for God's order". Phrases in hadiths, such as "he is the al-Qa'im of his time", "all of us are al-Qa'im for God's order" and the like, imply that the term, "al-Qa'im", is not specifically used for Imam al-Mahdi (a).
A Title of Imam al-Mahdi (a)
Since Imam al-Mahdi's (a) uprising (qiyam) is the most salient part of his life, this title was frequently used in the remarks of the Infallibles (a). Some hadiths are explicit about this, for example:
- Imam al-Sadiq (a) is quoted as saying that: "He [al-Mahdi(a)] is called 'al-Qa'im' because he will stand up (or rise up) for the right".
- Imam al-Jawad (a) was asked why he [al-Mahdi (a)] is called 'al-Qa'im'. He said: "because [he] will rise up when his name is forgotten".
- After the demise of Imam al-Baqir (a), some people took him to be the last Imam, holding that he was the expected al-Qa'im. According to al-Baghdadi, when Imam al-Baqir (a) died, some of his companions believed in his Mahdawiyya (the promised savior), and according to al-Shahristani, they believed that the Imam (a) will have a raj'a (return).
- During the lifetime of Imam al-Kazim (a), many people expected him, as the "Qa'im Al Muhammad", to found the right government that the society was expecting for years. After his martyrdom, some of his most prominent companions and representatives in different areas believed that he was alive and was only invisible to people and will soon reappear as the al-Qa'im and will establish the just government. These people were called "Waqifiyya".
- After the martyrdom of Imam Hasan al-'Askari (a), some people believed in his Mahdawiyya (the promised savior). Al-Shaykh al-Saduq said: "people who stopped at al-Hasan b. 'Ali b. Muhammad (that is, Imam al-'Askari) claimed that he went into an occultation and believed that he was al-Qa'im al-Mahdi".
Children of Imams
- Kaysanites believed that Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya was an Imam and believed in his being the al-Mahdi and the al-Qa'im. After his death, some of them believed that he was occluded and would rise up soon.
- Some Zaydiyya claimed that the leaders of Zaydi uprisings were Mahdis. They believed that they would return one day and would fill the world with justice. They claimed Mahdawiyya about Zayd b. 'Ali, al-Nafs al-Zakiyya, and other leaders of Zaydiyya.
- Isma'iliyya which was formed after the martyrdom of Imam al-Sadiq (a) was branched into two groups: some of them accepted the imamate of Muahmmad, the son of Isma'il, and some of them stopped at the imamate of Isma'il and believed in his Mahdawiyya. They believed that Isma'il did not die; rather his father, Imam al-Sadiq (a), had hidden him from people in order to protect him from harms. They believed that he would live until he takes over the whole Earth. These are pure Isma'iliyya. However, some of the followers of Muhammad b. Isma'il believed in his Mahdawiyya and stopped at his imamate.
- "CF" Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 380-386.
- Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 537.
- Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 536.
- Tūniʾī, Muʿūd nāma, p. 550.
- Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 383.
- Ṣadūq, Kamāl al-Dīn, vol. 2, p. 378.
- Baghdādī, al-Farq bayn al-firaq, p. 59.
- Shahristānī, Kitāb al-milal wa l-niḥal, p. 147.
- Mudarrisī Ṭabāṭabāyī, Maktab dar farāyand-i takāmul, p. 123-126.
- Ṣadūq, Kamāl al-Dīn, vol. 1, p. 40.
- Nubakhtī, Firaq al-Shīʿa, p. 28.
- Masūdī, Murūj al-dhahab, vol. 3, p. 230; Mansūr bi-Allāh, al-ʿAqd al-thamīn fī aḥkām al-aʾimma al-ṭāhirīn, p. 197.
- Abū l-faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 207, 210-219.
- See: Mūsawīnizhād, "Mahdawīyya wa firqa-yi Ḥusaynīyya-yi Zaydīyya", p. 127-162.
- Nubakhtī, Firaq al-Shīʿa, p. 67-68.
- Nubakhtī, Firaq al-Shīʿa, p. 73.
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