Aqa Husayn al-Khwansari
Tekyeh Aqh Husayn Kkwansari in Isfahan where Aqa Husayn and his sons are buried
|Full Name||Husayn b. Jamal al-Din Khwansari|
|Well-Known Relatives||Aqa Jamal Khwansari (son)|
|Place of Birth||Isfahan|
|Burial Place||Takht-i Fulad cemetery|
|Professors||Mir Findiriski, Muhammad Taqi al-Majlisi, al-Muhaqqiq al-Sabziwari|
|Students||Aqa Jamal al-Din Muhammad, Sayyid Ni'mat Allah Jaza'iri, ...|
|Permission for Hadith|
|Muhammad Taqi Majlisi|
|Works||Mashariq al-shumus fi sharh al-durus, Hashiyat isharat, ...|
Ḥusayn b. Jamāl al-Dīn Muḥammad al-Khwānsārī (Arabic:حُسَین بن جَمال الدین مُحَمَّد الخوانساري) (b.1016/1607 – d. 1098/1687), known as al-Muḥaqqiq al-Khwānsārī and Aghā Ḥusayn al-Khawānsārī, was a jurist from the fiqh school of Isfahan. He was a Shia theosophist in Safavid period in 11/17 century who was knowledgeable in philosophy, theosophy, rational, and traditional sciences.
Aqa Husayn al-Khwansari son of Jamal al-Din, known as al-Muhaqqiq al-Khwansari was a scholar in fiqh and a great Shia theosophist in Safavid period. Before he reached the age of maturity, he went to Isfahan to acquire Islamic knowledge and began his studies in the seminary of Khwaja Malik which was the forum of great men of knowledge at that time. He benefitted from many teachers and thus, he called himself "Tilmidh al-bashar"[Note 1] to refer to the multitude of his teachers. Aqa Husayn perfected his rational knowledge before Mir Findiriski, and traditional sciences before Muhammad Taqi al-Majlisi and received permission for the hadith transmition from him. Other teachers listed as his teachers are al-Muhaqqiq al-Sabziwari, author of al-Dhakhira and Haydar b. Muhammad al-Khwansari, author of Zubdat al-tasanif. Although he suffered poverty during his education, he reached a level Shah Sulayman Safavi sent him his own precious cloak and in one of his travels appointed him as his vicegerent to deal with the affairs of the state. Having such a great position and all the comfort he had, Aqa Husayn was always a refuge for the miserable and the needy. He was knowledgeable in rational and traditional sciences and according to Afandi al-Isfahani, he was "the support for men of knowledge".
He was first interested in kalam and philosophy, but later turned to fiqh and usul and became famous in them as the scientific and religious leader of his time. Al-Khwansari sometimes composed poems in Arabic and Persian and compiled beautiful poem collections in both languages.
He finished his education in the seminary of Isfahan and continued his studies in Khwajia Malik, beside Shaykh Lutfullah mosque. He learned rational sciences with Mirfendereski and traditional sciences with Mulla Muhammad Taqi Majlisi Awwal, Khalifat al-Sultan, Muhaqqiq Sabziwari and others.
He taught in both rational and traditional sciences and thus became famous as "Ustad al-kull-I fi al-kull". His students and pupils who themselves were regarded as great names in fiqh and theosophy were:
- Aqa Jamal al-Din Muhammad (his son), who wrote marginal notes on Sharh Lum'a
- Aqa Radi al-Din Muhammad, his other son
- Muhammad Salih Khatun Abadi who studied before him for 20 years
- Mulla Mirza-yi Shirwani, the commentator and one who wrote marginal notes on Ma'alim al-usul
- Shaykh Ja'far Qadi
- Sayyid Ni'mat Allah Jaza'iri
- Muhammad b. 'Abd al-Fattah Tunkabuni, known as "Sarab"
- Ali Rida Shirazi who was a knowledgeable poet and had a penname as "Tajalli"
- Mirza 'Abd Allah Afandi, author of Riyad al-'ulama whom Aqa Husayn Khwansari said that he had studied Sharh Isharat with.
- Mirza Muhammad b. Hasan Shirwani
Aqa Husayn Khwansari was a prolific author and had many works which can be categorized in 3 groups:
- Mashariq al-shumus fi sharh al-durus is his famous work in fiqh which is a commentary on Kitab al-Durus written by al-Shahid al-Awwal, Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad b. Makki al-'Amili (734/1334 – 784/1382). This book is unfinished and Aqa Husayn could not finish the details of the discussion regarding the information about Imams (a) and discussions of Twelver Shia fiqh scholars in every topic. According to the author of Rawdat al-jannat, this book is rare regarding the volume of research. This book has been published in Tehran two times in 1305/1888 and 1311/1893.
- Gloss on Hashiya of al-Muhaqqiq al-Sabziwari, Tehran, 1317/1899.
- Al-Risala fi muqaddamat al-wajib, Iran, 1317/1899.
- Hashiyat al-isharat
- Marginal notes on al-Ilahiyat al-shifa'
- Risalat al-ijma'
- Insha' [composition] on the prohibition of drinking alcoholic drinks
- Insha' [composition] on description of spring
- Ta'rif sukhan
- Marginal notes on Sharh tajrid
- Marginal notes onMutawwal
- Shubhat tafra
- Solution of question about division of things to infinity
- Marginal notes on Muhakimat
- Marginal notes on Mukhtasar al-'usul
- Fa'ida on the knowledge of God, the Almighty
His manuscripts are widely available in Iranian libraries and it is not likely that a library would not have at least few of his works. Of such libraries, the following can be mentioned:
- Central Library of the University of Tehran
- National Library of Tehran
- Malek National Library
- Library of Khanqah of Ni'mat Allah Wali
- (Previously) Sepahsalar Library
- (Previously) Shura-yi Melli Library
- Library of Rasht
- Library of Akhund (Hamedan)
- Vaziri Library (Yazd)
- Feydiyya Library
- Ayatullah Mar'ashi Library (Qom)
- Library of Jami' Goharshad
- Library of Astan Quds Razavi, Faculty of Literature (Mashad)
- Al-Ma'idat al-sultaniyya, in Persian, about foods and drinks for Shah Sulayman Safavi
- Translation of al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya in Persian
- Risala on jabr wa ikhtiyar
- Jawahir wa a'rad
- Commentary on Ibn Hajib's Kafiya
- Commentary on Qushji's Hay'at in Persian
- Treatise on the question of belief and disbelief
- Treatise on the question of Istilzam
- Translation of Allama al-Hilli's Nahj al-haqq in Persian for Shah Sulayman Safavi
- Commentary of the Sura al-Fatiha
- Marginal notes on Sharh hikmat al-'ayn
He passed away at the age of 82 in 1098/1686-87 in Isfahan and was buried in Takht-i Fulad cemetery of Isfahan near Baba Rukn al-Din. His sons, Aqa Jamal al-Din al-Khwansari and Aqa Radi al-Din al-Khwansari are also buried there, which is called Tekyeh of Aqa Husayn Khwansari.
- Literally, the student of the mankind. This is a humorous reference to the epithet of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi who is known as Ustad al-Bashar (teacher of the mankind) because of his vast knowledge in the different fields of science and the multitude of his students
- The content of this article is mainly taken from آقا حسین خوانساری in Farsi WikiShia.