Aqa Husayn Khwansari

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Tomb of Aqa Husayn Khwansari.jpg
Tekyeh Aqh Husayn Kkwansari in Isfahan where Aqa Husayn and his sons are buried
Personal Information
Full Name Husayn b. Jamal al-Din Khwansari
Well-Known Relatives Aqa Jamal Khwansari
Birth 1016/1607
Residence Isfahan
Studied in Isfahan
Death 1098/1687
Burial Place Takht-i Fulad cemetery
Scholarly Information
Professors Mir Findiriski, Muhammad Taqi Majlisi, Muhaqqiq Sabziwari
Students Aqa Jamal al-Din Muhammad, Sayyid Ni'mat Allah Jaza'iri, ...
Permission for Hadith
Transmission From
Muhammad Taqi Majlisi
Works Mashariq al-shumus fi sharh al-durus, Hashiya Isharat, ...

Ḥusayn b. Jamāl al-Dīn Muḥammad al-Khwānsārī (Arabic:حُسَین بن جَمال الدین مُحَمَّد الخوانساري) (b.1016/1607 – d. 1098/1687), known as al-Muḥaqqiq al-Khwānsārī and Aghā Ḥusayn al-Khawānsārī, was a jurist from the fiqh school of Isfahan. He was a Shia theosophist in Safavid period in 11/17 century who was knowledgeable in philosophy, theosophy, rational and traditional sciences.

He was first interested in Kalam and philosophy, but later turned to fiqh and Usul and became famous in them to be the scientific and religious leader of his time.

He passed away in Isfahan and was buried in Takht-i Fulad cemetery of Isfahan near Baba Rukn al-Din and that part of the cemetery became famous as Tekkye of Aqa Husayn Khwansari.

Life

Aqa Husayn Khwansari son of Jamal al-Din, known as Muhaqqiq Khwansari was a scholar in fiqh and a great Shia theosophist in Safavid period. Before he reached the age of maturity, he went to Isfahan to acquire Islamic knowledge and began his studies in the seminary of Khwaja Malik which was the forum of great men of knowledge at that time. He benefitted from many teachers and thus, he called himself "Tilmidh al-bashar" to refer to the multitude of his teachers. Aqa Husayn perfected his rational knowledge before Mir Findiriski, and traditional sciences before Muhammad Taqi Majlisi and received permission from him for narration of hadiths. Other teachers listed as his teachers are Muhaqqiq Sabziwari, author of al-Dhakhira and Haydar b. Muhammad Khwansari, author of Zubdat al-tasanif. Although he suffered poverty during his education, he reached a level Shah Sulayman Safavi sent him his own precious cloak and in one of his travels appointed him as his vicegerent to deal with the affairs of the state. Having such a great position and all the comfort he had, Aqa Husayn was always a refuge for the miserable and the needy. He was knowledgeable in rational and traditional sciences and according to Afandi isfahani, he was "the support for men of knowledge".

He was first interested in Kalam and philosophy, but later turned to fiqh and Usul and became famous in them as the scientific and religious leader of his time. Khwansari sometimes composed poems in Arabic and Persian and compiled beautiful poem collections in both languages.

Teachers

He finished his education in the seminary of Isfahan and continued his studies in Khwajia Malik, beside Shaykh Lutfullah mosque. He learned rational sciences with Mirfendereski and traditional sciences with Mulla Muhammad Taqi Majlisi Awwal, Khalifat al-Sultan, Muhaqqiq Sabziwari and others.

Students

A panorama taken from inside the tomb of Aqa Husayn Khwansari in Takht-i Fulad Cemetery in Isfahan, Iran.

He taught in both rational and traditional sciences and thus became famous as "Ustad al-kull-I fi al-kull". His students and pupils who themselves were regarded as great names in fiqh and theosophy were:

Works

Grave stone of Aqa Husayn Khwansari

Aqa Husayn Khwansari was a prolific author and had many works which can be categorized in 3 groups:

Printed Works

  • Mashariq al-shumus fi sharh al-durus is his famous work in fiqh which is a commentary on Kitab al-durus written by Shahid Awwal, Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad b. Makki 'Amili (734 – 784 AH / 1334 – 1382 CE). This book is unfinished and Aqa Husayn could not finish the details of the discussion regarding the information about Imams (a) and discussions of Twelver Shia fiqh scholars in every topic. According to the author of Rawdat al-jannat, this book is rare regarding the volume of researches. This book has been published in Tehran two times in 1305 and 1311 AH / 1888 and 1893 CE.
  • Gloss on the marginal notes (Hashiya) of Muhaqqiq Sabziwari, Tehran, 1317 AH/ 1899 CE.
  • Al-Risala fi muqaddamat al-wajib, Iran, 1317 AH/ 1899 CE.

Manuscripts

  • Hashiya Isharat
  • Marginal notes on Ilahiyyat Shifa'
  • Risala Ijma'
  • Insha' [composition] on prohibition of drinking alcoholic drinks
  • Insha' [composition] on description of spring
  • Ta'rif Sukhan
  • Marginal notes on Sharh Tajrid
  • Marginal notes onMutawwal
  • Shubha Tafra
  • Solution of question about division of things to infinity
  • Marginal notes on Muhakimat
  • Marginal notes on Mukhtasar al-'usul
  • Fa'ida on the knowledge of God, the Almighty

His manuscripts are widely available in Iranian libraries and it is not likely that a library would not have at least few of his works. Of such libraries, the following can be mentioned:

  • Central Library of the University of Tehran
  • National Library of Tehran
  • Malek National Library
  • Library of Khanqah of Ni'mat Allah Wali
  • (Previously) Sepahsalar Library
  • (Previously) Shura-yi Melli Library
  • Library of Rasht
  • Library of Akhund (Hamedan)
  • Vaziri Library (Yazd)
  • Feydiyya Library
  • Ayatullah Mar'ashi Library (Qom)
  • Library of Jami' Goharshad
  • Library of Astan Quds Razavi, Faculty of Literature (Mashad)

Attributed Works

  • Al-Ma'ida al-Sultaniyya, in Persian, about foods and drinks for Shah Sulayman Safavi
  • Translation of Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya in Persian
  • Risala on Jabr wa ikhtiyar
  • Jawahir wa a'rad
  • Commentary on Ibn Hajib's Kafiya
  • Commentary on Qushji's Hay'at in Persian
  • Treatise on the question of belief and disbelief
  • Treatise on the question of Istilzam
  • Translation of Allama al-Hilli's Nahj al-haqq in Persian for Shah Sulayman Safavi
  • Commentary of the Chapter al-Fatiha
  • Marginal notes on Sharh Hikmat al-'ayn

Demise

He passed away at the age of 82 in 1098/1687 in Isfahan and was buried in Takht-i Fulad cemetery of Isfahan near Baba Rukn al-Din. His sons, Aqa Jamal al-Din al-Khwansari and Aqa Radi al-Din al-Khwansari are also buried there, which is called Tekyeh of Aqa Husayn Khwansari.

References