Hashim b. Utba b. Abi Waqqas
|Hashim b. Utba b. Abi Waqqas|
|Full Name||Hashim b. 'Utba b. Malik b. Wuhayb (Ahib) b. 'Abd Manaf|
|Well-Known Relatives||Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas (uncle), 'Umar b. Sa'd (cousin)|
|Cause of Death/Martyrdom||Martyred in the battle of Siffin|
|Notable Roles||Companion of Imam Ali (a)|
|Other Activities||Played a role in the conquest of Iraq and also played an important role in persuading people to take oath of allegiance to Imam 'Ali (a).|
Hāshim b. ʿUtba b. Abī Waqqaṣ (Arabic:هاشِم بن عُتْبة بن اَبیوَقَّاص), titled as Hāshim al-Mirqāl (Arabic: هاشِم المِرقال) was a companion of Prophet Muhammad (s) and 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a). He was martyred in the battle of Siffin in 37/657. Hashim b. 'Utba converted to Islam in the time of the conquest of Mecca. Hashim al-Mirqal played role in the conquest of Iraq in the time of 'Umar b. al-Khattab. He also captured a number of cities of Iraq. Hashim also played an important role in persuading people to take oath of allegiance to Imam 'Ali (a).
Name, Lineage, Kunya and Title
Hashim b. 'Utba b. Malik b. Wuhayb (Ahib) b. 'Abd Manaf b. Zuhra from Banu Zuhra clan form Quraysh tribe. Aba 'Amr is the kunya and Al-Mirqal is the title of Hashim. Generally historians praised him and they described him as a brave, virtuous and generous man. He converted to Islam when Prophet Muhammad (s) conquered Mecca.
His father, 'Utba b. Malik, known as 'Utba b. Abi Waqqas was the brother of Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas, who was a fierce enemy of Prophet Muhammad (s). It is said, he broke a tooth of Prophet Muhammad (s) in the battle of Uhud; he died before the conquest of Mecca. Nafi', the brother of Hashim, also attended the battle of Uhud and fought alongside his father, but he converted to Islam in the time of the conquest of Mecca.
In the Time of Rashidun Caliphs
Hashim b. 'Utba attended the Battle of Yarmuk and he lost one eye in the battle. He was later sent to Qadisiyya by 'Umar b. al-Khattab to join Ash'ath b. Qays and Ashtar al-Nakha'i to support Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas. He was appointed as the commander of the left flank of Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas's army. A number of cities of Iraq, such as Jalawla were conquered by Hashim b. 'Utba in 17/638 or 19/640.
In the time of 'Uthman b. 'Affan's caliphate, Sa'id b. 'As was appointed as the governor of Kufa. In the end of Ramadan, Hashim al-Mirqal, saw new moon's crescent and then he broke his fast. When Sa'id b. 'As was informed, he asked Hashim about whether he saw moon's crescent or not, and Hashim confirmed that. Sa'id replied: "Among all people, how you could see the crescent of the new moon with only one eye?" and he ordered to lash Hashim. It is said, after the death of 'Uthman b. 'Affan, Imam 'Ali (a) appointed Hashim al-Mirqal as the governor of Kufa. When he came to power, he treated Sa'd b. 'As according to the law of retaliation and lashed him.
In the Time of Imam 'Ali (a)
Hashim b. 'Utba made efforts to persuade people to take oath of allegiance to 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a). When the news about the death of 'Uthman b. 'Affan and people's oath of allegiance to Imam 'Ali (a) spread to Kufa, Abu Musa al-Ash'ari, the governor of Kufa avoided taking oath of allegiance to Imam (a). When Hashim asked him to take oath of allegiance, he replied, "don't be hasty". Hashim al-Mirqal took oath of allegiance to Imam 'Ali (a), while putting his left hand on Imam's right hand, and said to Abu Musa, are you afraid of taking oath to 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a), and 'Uthman's return back to life to condemn you?! After Hashim's oath to Imam (a), Abu Musa and other people of Kufa took oath of allegiance to Imam (a) as well.
The Battle of Jamal
Hashim b. 'Utba attended the battle of Jamal. When people of Basra (except for Banu Sa'id) took oath of allegiance to Talha and Zubayr, Imam (a) sent Hashim b. 'Utba from Rabada or Di Qar to take Imam's letter to Abu Musa, the governor of Kufa. Imam (a) ordered Abu Musa to encourage people to join him. But when Hashim noticed that Abu Musa ignored Imam's order, he returned to Imam (a) and informed him. Then Imam 'Ali (a) sent Ibn 'Abbas and Muhammad Abi Bakr to Kufa to discharge Abu Musa.
The Battle of Siffin
Before the start of the battle of Siffin, 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) consulted with his companions including Hashim b. 'Utba about the battle against Mu'awiya. Hashim believed Umayyad launched the battle for worldly purposes; he mentioned that the death of 'Uthman b. 'Affan is only an excuse that Umayyad were emphasizing on to deceive people to join them.
Hashim b. 'Utba was one of Imam's commander in the army in the battle of Siffin; he was carrying the biggest flag of the army as well. Hashim and Qays b. Sa'd were the commanders of infantries of Basra. He was martyred in the battle by Harith b. Mundar al-Tanukhi. After that Imam gave the flag of his army to Hashim's son, 'Utba b. Hashim. In his last moments, when Hashim had lost one of his leg, he was still fighting bravely.
In Imam 'Ali's (a) Perspective
When Imam 'Ali (a) was informed of the martyrdom of Muhammad b. Abi Bakr, the governor of Egypt, Imam (a) said: "I took an oath to appoint Hashim al-Mirqal as the governor of Egypt. If he had been the governor in Egypt, 'Amr b. al-'As and his supporters were never able to take control of the region".
After the martyrdom of Hashim al-Mirqal, Imam 'Ali (a) came by his body and said: "May God bless Banu Aslam, who were martyred alongside Hashim [al-Mirqal]."
Based on ancient historical reports, Hashim al-Mirqal was martyred in the battle of Siffin. However, a number of recent historical sources mentioned the name of Hashim b. 'Utba as a supporter of Imam al-Husayn (a) who was martyred in the Battle of Karbala. Shahid Motahhari has considered this, a historical verbal falsification in the historical works written on the Battle of Karbala. Some other historians have mentioned two persons as Hashim b. 'Utba, one was martyred in the battle of Siffin and the other one was martyred in the Battle of Karbala.
According to a historical reports, Hashim al-Mirqal had a son named 'Abd Allah, who was imprisoned by Ziyad b. Abih by the order of Mu'awiya. Then he was sent to Syria (Levant). 'Abd Allah had a fierce arguments with 'Amr b. al-'As.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from هاشم بن عتبة بن ابیوقاص in Farsi Wikishia.