Hafsa bt. 'Umar
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|Hafsa bt. 'Umar|
Wife of the Prophet (s)
|Full Name||Hafsa bt. 'Umar b. Khattab|
|Birth||5 years before Bi'that/605-6|
|Place of Birth||Mecca|
|Places of Residence||Mecca, Medina|
|Burial Place||Baqi' cemetery|
|Known for||Wife of the Prophet (s)|
Date of Marriage
(before Hijra/before 622)
Ḥafṣa bt. ʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb (Arabic: حفصه بنت عمر بن الخطّاب) (b. 18 BH/605-6 - d. 45/665-6) was one of the wives of the Prophet (s), who got married to him in Sha'ban, 3/625, after the death of her first husband.
Together with Aisha, the other wife of the Prophet (s), they were the two who resented the Prophet (s), and the first and forth verses of the sura Al-Tahrim have observed this incident. She also was the one who, though discouraged later on by her brother, resolved to accompany Aisha in a rebellion against Imam 'Ali (a) in the Battle of Jamal.
Her father was 'Umar b. al-Khattab, the second caliph, and her mother was Zaynab, the sister of the companion of the Prophet (s), 'Uthman b. Maz'un.
Marriage to Khunays
Before the emigration of the Prophet (s) to Medina, she got married to Khunays b. Hudhafa al-Sahmi. Together with her husband then, they immigrated to Medina. Khunays, though sick, attended the Battle of Badr, and died a short while after the battle.
Marriage to the Prophet (s)
There are historical reports that Abu Bakr and 'Uthman b. 'Affan had proposed to her before her marriage to the Prophet (s), but these reports are not reliable. The Prophet (s) made her a bridal gift (mahr) of 400 dirhams.
Taking orders from the Prophet (s) a woman named Shafa, the daughter of 'Abd Allah al-'Adwiyya, who was a literate woman in the pre-Islamic period, taught her how to write.
Hurting the Prophet (s)
It is narrated in some hadiths that the Prophet (s) was determined to divorce her, but Gabriel discouraged him. Likewise, those hadiths which have reported her divorce, have mentioned that Gabriel suggested the revocation. These reports are mostly mentioned in Traditionalists and Hanbali resources, and are not reliable.
By the time Hafsa and Aisha found out that the Prophet (s), due to his illness, was to send Imam 'Ali (a) to say prayer in the mosque in his place, they went after their fathers and brought them to the Prophet (s).
In the Time of 'Uthman
After the death of her father, 'Umar, also, she, according to his will, conserved the Qur'an manuscripts which were compiled during the caliphate of Abu Bakr, and in the process of the final compilation of Qur'an, she provided 'Uthman with those manuscripts, which were returned to her afterwards.
Battle of Jamal
- See also: Battle of Jamal
By the time Imam 'Ali (a) arrived at Zi Qar, Aisha sent Hafsa a letter, describing Imam 'Ali (a) and his forces to be under siege. So pleased as she was, Hafsa gathered the children of the tribes Banu Taym and Banu 'Adi, and ordered her maidservants to recite poetry and cheer in happiness. Umm Salama, the wife of the Prophet (s), was too distressed as she heard of this, and had Umm Kulthum, Imam 'Ali's (a) daughter, go anonymously to Hafsa's festivity, and blame her on behalf of Umm Salama. Hafsa, therefore, was ashamed and stopped the festivity.
Position among Sunnis
She has narrated from the Prophet (s), mostly regarding hajj, prayer, marriage, and fasting. Also her brother, 'Abd Allah b. 'Umar, and some others such as 'Abd Allah b. Safwan al-Jumahi and 'Amr b. Rafi', have narrated hadith from her.
Sunni Fiqh resources have mentioned some of her Ijtihads.
There is disagreement about the date of her death. Most historians though, such as Ibn Sa'd and al-Zubayr b. Bakkar, have dated her death in 45/665. Marwan b. al-Hakam, who was the governor of Medina at the time, said her burial prayer, and she was buried in al-Baqi' cemetery.
- Abu 'Ubayda, P.59
- Ibn Sa'd, Vol.8, P.81
- Al-Baladhuri, Jumal min ansab al-ashraf, Vol.2, P.54
- Ibn Sa'd, Vol.3, P.393; Vol.8, P.81
- To read the whole story of the Prophet's (s) marriage with Hafsa see: Ibn Sa'd, Vol.8, P.81,83
- Abu 'Ubayda, P.60; Ibn Sa'd, Vol.8, P.83
- Ibn Hisham, Vol.4, P.294
- Ibn Sa'd, Vol.4, P.84
- Quran 66:1-5
- Abu 'Ubayda, P.77; Ibn Hanbal, Vol.3, P.478
- Ibn Sa'd, Vol.8, P.84; Ibn Hanbal, Vol.3, P.478
- Al-Baladhuri, Vo.2, P.59
- Al-Kharrat, Umm al-Mu'minin Hafsa bint 'Umar, p. 4375
- Al-Mufid, P.428
- Malik b. Anas, Vo.2, P.87; Al-Shafi'i, Vol.1, P.293
- Ibn Abi Dawud, al-Masahif, p. 9697
- Al-Bukhari, Vol.5, PP.210-1
- Al-Tabari, Al-Tarikh, Vol.4, PP.451-4; Ibn Abi l-Hadid, Vol.6, P.225
- Al-Mufid, PP.276, 277, 431
- To see the content of those hadiths see: Ibn Hanbal, Vol.6, PP.283,288; Al-Tabarani, Vol.23, PP.189,218; Ibn Kathir, Vol.15, PP.361-385
- Vol.8, P.86
- Ibn Sa'd, Vol.8, P.86
- Ibn Sa'd, Vol.8, P.86
- The material of this article is mainly taken from حفصة بنت عمر بن خطّاب in Farsi WikiShia.
- Baladhuri, Ahmad b. Yahya al-. Futuh al-buldan. Beirut: 'Abd Allah Anis al-Tabba' wa 'Umar 'Anis al-Tabba', 1407 AH/1987.
- Al-Bukhari, Muhammad b. Isma'il. 1401 AH/1981. Sahih al-Bukhari. Istanbul.
- Ibn Abi al-Hadid. 1965-67. Commentary of Nahj al-Balgha, Ed. Muhammad Abu l-Fadl Ibrahim. Cairo.
- Ibn Hanbal. n.d. Musnad of Imam Ahmad b. Hanbal. Beirut: Dar Sadir.
- Ibn Kathir. 1415 AH/1994. Jami' al-masanid wa al-sunan al-hadi li aqwam sunan Ed. 'Abd al-Mu'ti Amin. Beirut.
- Ibn Sa'd. n.d. Beirut.
- Malik b. Anas. 1370 AH/1951. Al-Muwatta' Ed. Muhammad Fu'ad 'Abd al-Baqi. Cairo.
- Mu'ammar b. Muthanna Abu 'Ubayda. 1410 AH/1990. Tasmiyat azwaj al-Nabi wa awladihi Ed. Kamal Yusuf Hut. Beirut.
- Al-Mufid, Muhammad b. Muhammad. 1374 sh. Al-Jumal wa al-nusra li sayyid al-'itra fi harb al-Basra Ed. 'Ali Mir Sharifi. Qom.
- Al-Tabarani, Sulayman b. Ahmad. 1404. Al-Mu'jam al-kabir Ed. Hamdi 'Abd al-Majid Salafi. Beirut.
- Al-Tabari, Muhammad b. Jarir. n.d. Al-Tarikh. Beirut.
- Zubayr b. Bakkar. 1403 AH/1983. Al-Muntakhab min kitab azwaj al-Nabi Ed. Sakina Shahabi. Beirut.