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Al-Khayran the Servant

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Companion of Imam (a)
Al-Khayran the Servant
Companion of Imam al-Rida (a), Imam al-Jawad (a) and Imam al-Hadi (a)
Epithet al-Asbati, al-Qaratisi
Well Known As al-Asbati and al-Qaratisi
Religious Affiliation Shi'a
Students Al-Hasan b. Ali b. al-Washsha, Al-Husayn b. Muhammad b. al-Ash'ari, Ali b. Mahziyar al-Ahwazi, Sahl b. Ziyad al-Adami
Activities Deputyship of Imam al-Jawad (a) and Imam al-Hadi (a)

Al-Khayrān the servant (Arabic:خيران الخادم) was a Shi'a transmitter of hadith in the second/eighth and the third/ninth centuries who was a servant of Imam al-Rida (a) and deputy of Imam al-Jawad (a) and Imam al-Hadi (a). Great scholars such as al-Shaykh al-Tusi have mentioned him as reliable. According to one of the correspondences of Imam al-Hadi (a) with al-Khayran the servant, contemporary scholars have considered his position higher than deputyship. People such as Ali b. Mahziyar al-Ahwazi and Abu Sa'id Sahl b. Ziyad al-Razi have transmitted hadiths from him.

Titles

There is no mention of his lineage and teknonym in references of rijal.[1] His title has been mentioned as al-Asbati[2] and al-Qaratisi.[3] Seemingly, al-Qaratisi has been distorted form of al-Faratisi, since according to the report of al-Mas'udi,[4] al-Khayran was servant of Faratis, mother of Wathiq Billah, the Abbasid caliph (ruling between 227/841-42 - 232/846-47) and thus he became famous as al-Faratisi.[5]

Association with Imams (a)

Al-Khayran was the servant of Imam al-Rida (a)[6] and a deputy of Imam al-Jawad (a) and Imam al-Hadi (a).[7] There are reports about his association with Imam al-Hadi (a) and his divinations about some events and also al-Khayran's reverence and humbleness before Imam (a).[8]

Also, there are narrations about Imam al-Rida's (a) clear mentioning of Imam al-Jawad's (a) imamate and also mentioning of Imam al-Hadi's (a) imamate transmitted by al-Khayrani who was thought to be al-Khayran's son.

Reliability

Al-Tusi has mentioned him as reiable[9] and Ibn Shahrashub has counted him among reliable companions of Imam al-Hadi (a).[10] He had intimate relationships with Imams (a) and was trusted by them so that in one of his correspondences, Imam al-Hadi (a) has considered his opinion the same as al-Khayran's and obeying it the same as obeying himself.[11]

In the Views of Contemporary Scholars

Contemporary scholars of rijal have considered the mentioned correspondence an evidence that he was more than a deputy and an indication of his reliability and high position before Imam (a).

Letter to Imam (a)

What is available about his jurisprudential hadiths he has transmitted is a correspondence with one of Imams (a) about the rulings of prayer wearing clothes sullied by alcoholic drinks or the meat of pig.[12] Contemporary scholars of rijal and jurisprudence have considered it possible that this letter has been sent to Imam al-Sadiq (a) and since it is impossible that al-Khayran had been living at the time of Imam al-Sadiq (a), attributing this letter to him has been doubted.[13]

Written Works

He wrote a book mentioned by Muhammad b. Isa al-Ubaydi, a companion of Imam al-Hadi (a) and Imam al-Askari (a).[14]

Notes

  1. Ṣadūq, al-Khiṣāl, vol. 2, p. 564; Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl al-Ṭūsī, p. 386; Zanjāni, Kitāb al-jāmiʿ fī al-rijāl, p. 734; Muwaḥḥid Abṭahī, Tahdhīb al-maqāl, vol. 5, p. 427-429.
  2. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 498; Zanjāni, Kitāb al-jāmiʿ fī al-rijāl, p. 734.
  3. Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 608-609; Shūshtarī, Qāmūs al-rijāl, vol. 4, p. 224.
  4. Masʿūdī, Ithbāt al-waṣiyya, p. 232.
  5. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 498; Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 301.
  6. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 155.
  7. Barqī, Kitāb al-Rijāl, p. 58; Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 324; Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, p. 386.
  8. Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 610-611; Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 498.
  9. Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, p. 386.
  10. Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 4, p. 402.
  11. Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 611.
  12. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 3, p. 405; Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 1, p. 279; vol. 2, p. 358-359.
  13. Baḥrānī, al-Ḥadāʾiq al-nāḍira, vol. 5, p. 100; Khoeī, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 7, p. 86.
  14. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 155.

References

  • Baḥrānī, Yūsuf al-. Al-Ḥadāʾiq al-nāḍira fī aḥkām al-ʿitrat al-ṭāhira. Qom: 1363-1367 Sh.
  • Barqī, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad. Kitāb al-Rijāl. Edited by Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥaddith Armawī. Tehran: 1383 Sh.
  • Ibn Shahrāshūb, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib. Edited by Ḥāshim Rasūlī. Qom: [n.d].
  • Khoeī, Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim al-. Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Kashshī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-. Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl known as Rijāl al-Kashshī. Surmised by Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Ṭūsī. Edited by Ḥasan Muṣṭafawī. Mashhad: 1348 Sh.
  • Kulaynī, Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb al-. Al-Kāfī. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Mamaqānī, ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḥasan. Tanqīḥ al-maqāl fī ʿilm al-rijāl. Edited by Muḥyi al-Dīn al-Mamaqānī. Qom: 1423 AH.
  • Masʿūdī, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn al-. Ithbāt al-waṣiyya li l-Imām ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib. Qom: 1382 Sh.
  • Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Irshād fī maʿrifat ḥujaj Allāh ʿalā l-ʿibād. Beirut: 1414 AH.
  • Muwaḥḥid Abṭahī, Muḥammad ʿAlī. Tahdhīb al-maqāl kitāb al-rijāl li-Shaykh al-jalīl Abi l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-Najāshī. volume 5. Qom: 1417 AH.
  • Najāshī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-. Fihrist asmāʾ muṣannifī al-Shīʿa al-mushtahir bi rijāl al-Najāshī. Edited by Mūsā Shubayrī Zanjānī. Qom: 1407 AH.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Khiṣāl. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Qom: 1362 Sh.
  • Shūshtarī, Muḥammad Taqī. Qāmūs al-rijāl. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Tahdhīb al-aḥkām. Edited by Sayyid Ḥasan al-Khursān. Tehran: 1390.
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥaasn al-. Al-Rijāl al-Ṭūsī. Edited by Jawād Qayyūmī al-Iṣfahānī. Qom: 1423 AH.
  • Zanjāni, Mūsā b. ʿAbd Allāh. Kitāb al-jāmiʿ fī al-rijāl. Qom: 1394 AH.