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Zaynab daughter of the Prophet (s)

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For other people named Zaynab, see Zaynab (disambiguation).
Zaynab daughter of the Prophet
Daughter of the Prophet (s)
Full Name Zaynab bt. Muhammad (s)
Lineage Banu Hashim
Well-known Relatives The Prophet (s), Lady Khadija (a), Abu l-'As b. Rabi'
Place of Birth Mecca
Place of Residence Mecca
Death/Martyrdom 8/629
Burial Place Baqi' cemetery
Era Early Islam
Known for Daughter of the Prophet (s)

Zaynab bt. Muḥammad (Arabic: زینب بنت محمد) was the daughter of the Prophet (s) and Khadija (a). Her husband was Abu l-'As b. Rabi'. Zaynab died in 8/629., and was buried in al-Baqi' cemetery.

According to some Shiite scholars, such as al-Sayyid Ja'far Murtada al-'Amili, Zaynab was not the daughter of the Prophet (s) and Khadija (a); rather she was the Prophet's (s) step-daughter.

Name Birth and Demise
Al-Qasim d. before bi'tha
Abd Allah d. before hijra
Ruqayya • b. before hijra
• d. 2 years after hijra
Zaynab • b. 30 years after Am al-Fil
• d. 8 AH
Umm Kulthum • b. before hijra
9 AH
Ibrahim * b. 8 AH
* d. 10 AH
Fatima • b. 5 years after bi'tha
• d. 11 AH

Lineage and Life

Zaynab was the oldest daughter of the Prophet (s) and Khadija (a).[1] She was born when the Prophet (s) was thirty years old,[2] that is, in the 30th year after 'Am al-Fil (600 CE).[3]

She was married to Abu l-'As b. Rabi'[4] before the Prophet's (s) bi'that.[5]

When 'Utba b. Abu Lahab and his brother 'Utayba divorced Ruqayya and Umm Kulthum—the other two daughters of the Prophet (s)[6]—the heads of Quraysh asked Abu l-'As to divorce Zaynab, but he overlooked their request.[7]

According to some Shiite scholars, such as al-Sayyid Ja'far Murtada al-'Amili (d. 2019 CE), Zaynab, Ruqayya, and Umm Kulthum were not daughters of the Prophet (s) and Khadija (a); rather they were all Prophet's (s) step-daughters.[8]

Her Husband

Main article: Abu l-'As b. al-Rabi'

Abu al-'As b. Rabi' b. 'Abd al-'Uzza b. 'Abd Shams (d. 12th of Dhu al-Hijja), was son of Khadija's sister (Hala)[9] and was captured by Muslims in the battle of Badr[10] and became Muslim in 6/628.[11]

Captivity of Abu l-'As

In the Battle of Badr, Abu l-'As attended the army of polytheists, and was captivated by Muslims. When people of Medina asked for ransoms in order to release the captives, Zaynab sent the necklace she had received from Khadija (a) for her marriage. When the Prophet (s) saw the necklace, he was emotionally touched, and with the agreement of Muslims, he released Abu l-'As and returned Zaynab's properties, and asked Abu l-'As to set Zaynab free. When Abu l-'As went back to Mecca, he sent Zaynab, together with some of the Prophet's (s) companions, to Medina.

It is said that previously, when the noble Prophet (s) immigrated to Medina, sent some people to Mecca to bring his daughters to Medina, but Zaynab was locked up by her husband and could not go with them.[12]

Abu al-'As Accepting Islam

In 6/628, when Abu al-'As was coming back from his business journey to Syria, agents of the Prophet (s) attacked his caravan and some of them, including him, escaped. Muslims confiscated his properties. He went to Medina at night and sought refuge to his ex-wife, Zaynab. The next day, Zaynab stood up in the middle of the prayer and said, "O everyone! Know that I have sheltered Abu al-'As." The Prophet (s) told Muslims that he (s) did not know it. Then, he (s) told Zaynab, "respect him, but do not go to bed with him, because you are not permissible for him." Then, he (s) told Muslims, "You may free him and his properties if you wish." So, Muslims freed him and the properties with his caravan. Abu al-'As went to Mecca and gave people their properties, declared that he became Muslim and returned to Medina.[13]

Her Immigration to Medina

After Zaynab's husband left her free to go to Medina due to the promise he had given to the Prophet (s), Zaynab went to Medina. Al-Tabari said that she met two polytheists. They pushed her and she fell to the ground while she was pregnant. She hit a stone, bled and her child died. Due to this accident, she was wounded and that wound remained with her until the end of her life.[14]

Remarriage

After a while, Abu l-'As went back to Medina and the Prophet (s) sent Zaynab to him in the Muharram month of 7/629 with the same marriage covenant.[15] But according to some accounts, they remarried with a new marriage covenant and dowry.[16]

Children

One of their children, Ali, died when he was a kid.

They also had a daughter called Umama. The Prophet (s) loved her very much. When the Prophet (s) was saying his prayers, Amama rode on his shoulders, and the Prophet (s) put her down when he was prostrating, and then took her up when he was rising from the prostration. When Fatima al-Zahra (a) was martyred, Imam Ali (a) married Amama in accordance with Fatima's will.

Death

The dome of the Prophet's (s) daughters—Ruqayya, Umm Kulthum, and Zaynab— before being demolished by Wahhabis.

Zaynab died in 8/630.[17] Her corpse was washed by Sawda bt. Zam'a, Umm Salama, and Umm Ayman.[18] The Prophet (s) asked them to cover her with his clothes. He then went into the grave and prayed for her.[19]

Grave

The graves thought be of the Prophet's (s) daughters—Ruqayya, Umm Kulthum, and Zaynab—were located in the north of the graves of Shiite Imams (a) and the southwestern part of the graves of the Prophet's (s) wives and near the grave of Uthman b. Maz'un in al-Baqi'. According to some historical accounts, Zaynab was buried in al-Baqi', near the grave of Uthman b. Maz'un in accordance with the Prophet's (s) request.[20] The grave used to have a brass shrine.[21] Wahhabis destroyed the grave.[22]

Notes

  1. Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 6, p. 130.
  2. Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 6, p. 130.
  3. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, p. 1839, 1853.
  4. Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 4, p. 222; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 397.
  5. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kabīr, vol. 8, p. 25.
  6. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 401.
  7. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 397.
  8. ʿĀmilī, al-Ṣaḥīḥ min sīrat al-nabīyy al-aʿẓam, vol. 2, p. 218; ʿĀmilī, Banāt al-Nabī am rabāʾibuh, p. 77-79; Kūfī, al-Istighātha, vol. 1, p. 68.
  9. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 397.
  10. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 139.
  11. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 2, p. 553-554.
  12. Muqaddisī, al-Bidaʾ wa al-tārīkh, vol. 5, p. 18.
  13. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 2, p. 553-554.
  14. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1854; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 11, p. 494.
  15. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 2, p. 554; Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 1, p. 659; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kabīr, vol. 8, p. 27; Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 4, p. 222.
  16. Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 4, p. 222.
  17. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1853; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 400.
  18. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kabīr, vol. 8, p. 28.
  19. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 400.
  20. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 3, p. 1054; Ḥākim al-Nayshābūrī, al-Mustadrak, vol. 3, p. 210.
  21. Jaʿfarīyān, Risāla-yi mufarriḥat al-anām fī taʾsis bayt Allāh al-harām, p. 118.
  22. Group of writers, Baqīʿ dar āʾīna-yi tārīkh, p. 220.

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