|al-Mu'minun ← →al-Furqan|
Sūra al-Nūr (سورة النور) is the 24th sura of the Qur'an. It is a Madani sura located in juz' 18. This sura is called "al-Nur" because the word "nur" is mentioned in this sura 7 times and it contains al-Nur verse. Sura al-Nur also contains many rulings such as the punishment for adultery, attributing adultery to someone (Qadhf) and hijab as an obligation for women. Also, in this sura, the Event of Ifk, some issues about marriage, slander, libel and accusation are mentioned and spreading atrocities are prohibited. About the blessings of recitation of this sura, there are narrations suggesting that whoever recites Sura al-Nur, God will give him rewards ten times more than the number of all men and women believers in the past and in the future. It is also mentioned in narrations that it is among the rights of a daughter upon her father to teach her Sura al-Nur.
This sura is named al-Nur because the word "nur" is mentioned in this sura 7 times and it also contains al-Nur verse (verse 35). This verse begins with the word "Allah" and the word "Nur" is mentioned in it five times.
Order and Place of Revelation
Number of Verses
After verse 11 of Sura al-Nur, the glorious Qur'an mentions the story of slandering a Muslim and criticizes people for it. From the appearance of the verses of the Qur'an, aside from the commentaries and occasions of revelation proposed for them, it can be understood that the person who was subject to slander was a famous person and a member of the Prophet's (s) family and the slanderers were a group of people. Two contexts of revelation have been suggested for these verses:
- Hypocrites slandered 'Ayisha after Muslims returned from the Battle of Bani l-Mustaliq.[Note 1]
- 'Ayisha slandered Mariya al-Qibtiyya.[Note 2] In these verses, slanderers are threatened to receive a great punishment and also believers are prohibited from accepting rumors without reasons and investigation.
- Main article: Al-Nur Verse
|“||"Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The parable of His Light is a niche wherein is a lamp—the lamp is in a glass, the glass as it were a glittering star—lit from a blessed olive tree, neither eastern nor western, whose oil almost lights up, though fire should not touch it. Light upon light. Allah guides to His Light whomever He wishes. Allah draws parables for mankind, and Allah has knowledge of all things."||”|
|— Qur'an 4:59|
In some commentaries, with regards to available narrations, this verse is interpreted as referring to the Ahl al-Bayt (a). It is narrated from Imam al-Rida (a) that we are the niche wherein is the lamp of Muhammad (s) and God guides whomever He wishes through our wilaya. It is also mentioned in al-Mizan that Imam al-Sadiq (a) was asked about al-Nur verse and Imam (a) answered, "it is a parable God has made about us the Ahl al-Bayt (a), that the Prophet (s) and Imams (a) are among the signs of God, by which people are guided toward the Unity of God, the good of religion, recommended actions and obligations." To explain this understanding, 'Allama Tabataba'i suggested that this narration referred to some examples, but the verse apparently includes people other than the Ahl al-Bayt (a), such as the Prophets (a) and the friends of God as well.
Verses of Rulings
Verses 2 to 8 of Sura al-Nur are mentioned among the verses of ruling. Verse 2 refers to adulterers and mentions the punishment for such persons, a hundred stroke of lashes. Scholars of [[fiqh|jurisprudence] have discussed under this verse about whom is meant by adulterer in this verse and what are the conditions of administering the punishment. Verse 3 considers marriage of a believer with an adulterer prohibited. It is mentioned in commentaries that the adulterer in this ruling refers to a person who is famous for doing this action, not a person who has repented.
Another verses of ruling in this sura is verse 31 which is about hijab. It orders women to modesty and covering their jewelry and mentions whom women can meet without hijab. Verse 60 excludes old women from this ruling with some conditions.
Also verses 32 and 33 are counted among verses which infer rulings. These verses order men and women about marriage and mention that if they do not have the requirements for it, they need to observe modesty and chasteness.
Merits and Benefits
About the merits of Sura al-Nur, it is narrated from the Prophet (s) that whoever recites Sura al-Nur, God will give him rewards ten times more than the number of all men and women believers in the past and in the future. It is also narrated from the Prophet (s) that it is among the rights of a daughter upon her father to teach her Sura al-Nur. It is also narrated from Imam Ali (a) that he (a) ordered, "teach Sura al-Nur to your women in which there is good advice." It is narrated from Imam al-Sadiq (a), "guard your property and sexual desire by recitation Sura al-Nur and protect your women with this sura, because whoever recites this sura every day or every night, none of his households would commit adultery; and after his death, seventy thousand angels will follow his body in funeral, pray for him and ask for his forgiveness until he is buried in the grave."
Several blessings and benefits are narrated about recitation of this sura such as preventing nocturnal emission, return of an escaped person (if the verse 40 of this sura is recited) and healing the weakness of eye, for which one needs to write the verse 35 of this sura, wash it and rub its water on his eyes.
|For the full text, see text:Sura al-Nur.|
- Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1243.
- Maʿrifat, Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 168.
- Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
- Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 15, p. 127-128.
- See: Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 2, p. 297-302; Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, p. 426-435; Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, vol. 5, p. 223-227.
- Qummī, Tafsīr al-Qummī, vol. 2, p. 99; ʿĀmilī, al-Ṣaḥīḥ min sīrat al-nabīyy, vol. 12, p. 320, 326.
- Makārim Shīrāzī, al-Amthal, vol. 11, p. 46.
- Shubbar, Tafsīr Shubbar, p. 342.
- Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 15, p. 195.
- Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 15, p. 195.
- Īrawānī, Durūs tamhīdīyya, vol. 1, p. 356, 567, 577; Fāḍil Miqdād, Kanz al-ʿirfān, vol. 2, p. 294.
- Fayḍ al-Kāshānī, Tafsīr al-Ṣāfī, vol. 3, p. 417.
- Ardibīlī, Zubdat al-bayān, p. 613.
- Īrawānī, Durūs tamhīdīyya, vol. 1, p. 377-384.
- Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 14, p. 542; Īrawānī, Durūs tamhīdīyya, vol. 1, p. 386.
- Ardibīlī, Zubdat al-bayān, p. 504, 367.
- Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 7, p. 216.
- Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 8, p. 112.
- Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 5, p. 516.
- Ṣadūq, Thawāb al-aʿmāl, p. 109.
- Baḥrānī, al-Burhān, vol. 4, p. 43.
- Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 2, p. 63.
- To critique this opinion, See: Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 15, p. 101-130; Makārim Shīrāzī, al-Amthāl, vol. 11, p. 40-41.
- To critique this opinion, See: Makārim Shīrāzī, al-Amthal, vol. 11, p. 41; Subḥānī, Furūgh-i abadīyyat, p. 666.
- ʿĀmilī, Jaʿfar Murtaḍā. Al-Ṣaḥīḥ min sīrat al-nabīyy al-aʿẓam. Qom: Dār al-Ḥadīth, 1426 AH.
- Ardibīlī, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad. Zubdat al-bayān fī aḥkām al-Qurʾān. Edited by Muḥammad Bāqir Bihbūdī. Tehran: al-Maktaba al-Murtaḍawīyya, [n.d].
- Baḥrānī, Sayyid Hāshim b. Sulaymān. Al-Burhān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Translated to Farsi by Riḍā Nāẓimīyān. Tehran: Kitāb-i Ṣubḥ, 1388 Sh.
- Fāḍil Miqdād, Miqdād b. ʿAbd Allāh al-. Kanz al-ʿirfān fī fiqh al-Qurʾān. Edited by Muḥammad Bāqir Sharīfzāda & *Muḥammad Bāqir Bihbūdī. Tehran: Nashr-i Murtaḍawī, [n.d].
- Fayḍ al-Kāshānī, Muḥammad b. Murtaḍā. Tafsīr al-Ṣāfī. Edited by Ḥusayn Aʿlamī. Second edition. Tehran: Maktabat al-Ṣadr, 1415 AH.
- Ibn Hishām, ʿAbd al-Malik. Al-Sīra al-nabawīyya. Edited by Muṣṭafā al-Saqā. Beirut: Dār al-Maʿrifa, [n.d].
- Īrawānī, Muḥammad Bāqir. Durūs tamhīdīyya fī tafsīr āyāt al-aḥkām. Qom: Dār al-Fiqh, 1423 AH.
- Khurramshāhī, Bahāʾ al-Dīn. Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān wa Qurʾān pazhūhī. Tehran: Dūstān-Nāhīd, 1377 Sh.
- Kulaynī, Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb al-. Al-Kāfī. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1407 AH.
- Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Al-Amthal fī tafsīr kitāb Allāh al-munzal. Qom: Madrisat Imām ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, 1421 AH.
- Maʿrifat, Muḥammad Hādī. Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān. [n.p]: Markaz Chāp wa Nashr-i Sāzmān-i Tablīghāt, 1371 Sh.
- Qummī, ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm al-. Tafsīr al-Qummī. Qom: Dār al-Kitāb, 1367 Sh.
- Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Thawāb al-aʿmāl wa ʿiqāb al-aʿmāl. Edited by Muḥammad Riḍā Anṣārī. Qom: Nasīm-i Kawthar, 1382 Sh.
- Subḥānī, Jaʿfar. Furūgh-i abadīyyat. Qom: Būstān-i Kitāb, 1384 Sh.
- Ṭabāṭabāyī, Mūhammad Ḥusayn al-. Al-Mīzān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1417 AH.
- Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Majmaʿ al-bayān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Edited by Muḥammad Jawād Balāghī. Third edition. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Nāṣir Khusru, 1372 Sh.
- Wāqidī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-. Al-Maghāzī. Edited by Marsden Jones. [n.p]: Maktab al-Aʿlām al-Islāmī, 1414 AH.