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Atiyya b. Sa'd b. Junada al-Awfi

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Companion of Imam (a)
Atiyya b. Sa'd b. Junada al-Awfi
Companion of Imam Ali (a)Imam al-Hasan (a)Imam al-Husayn (a)Imam al-Sajjad (a)
Teknonym Abu l-Hasan
Religious Affiliation Shia Islam
Birth Between 36-40/656-660
Place of Birth Kufa
Place(s) of Residence Kufa • Khorasan
Demise 111/729
Works Exegesis of the Qur'an
Activities Participation in the Uprising of al-Mukhtar and the Uprising of Abd al-Rahman b. Muhammad b. Ash'ath against Hajjaj b. Yusuf.

ʿAṭīyya b. Saʿa b. Junāda al-ʿAwfī (Arabic: عَطِیَّة بن سَعد بن جُناده العَوفي) was one of the Tabi'un and a companions of Imam Ali (a) in Kufa. He was allegedly a Shiite exegete, muhaddith, and jurist. He wrote a book concerning the exegesis of the Qur'an. He was born during the caliphate of Imam Ali (a), and died in Kufa in 111/729. He participated in the Uprising of al-Mukhtar and the Uprising of Abd al-Rahman b. Muhammad al-Kindi against Hajjaj b. Yusuf. He was whipped at the command of Hajjaj because he refused to curse Imam Ali (a). As is well-known, 'Atiyya accompanied Jabir b. Abd Allah al-Ansari in his visit (ziyara) of the first Arba'in of Imam al-Husayn (a).

Lineage, Birth, Name, and Kunya

Atiyya was from the Bakali clan from the tribe of Banu Awf b. Imra' al-Qays. His father, Sa'd b. Junada, was from the tribe of Banu Awf[1] and was a companion of the Prophet (s),[2] and his mother was a concubine from Rome.[3]

There is no precise information about the date of his birth. According to some people, he was born between 36 and 40/656-660, because he was born in Kufa during the caliphate of Imam Ali (a).[4] When he was born, his father took him to Imam Ali (a) to give a name to him. The Imam (a) took him in his arms and then said, "this is 'atiyyat Allah' (literally, an endowment of God)". Thus, he was called "Atiyya".[5] Imam Ali (a) allocated a monthly payment for him from the governmental treasury.[6] His teknonym was Abu l-Hasan.[7] He is also known with titles such as Awfi, Jadali, Qaysi, and Kufi.[8]

Scholarly Position

Atiyya counts as one of the Tabi'un. He met Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (a) as well.[9] Ibn Sa'd, a Sunni scholar, referred to him as a reliable and righteous person.[10] Al-Tirmidhi transmitted hadiths from him, referring to his transmitted hadiths as good.[11] He is mentioned as a Shiite muhaddith,[12] exegete of the Qur'an,[13] and jurist in the period of Hajjaj b. Yusuf al-Thaqafi.[14]

He transmitted hadiths from Abd Allah b. Abbas,[15] Abu Sa'id al-Khidri,[16] Abd Allah b. Umar,[17] and Jabir b. Abd Allah al-Ansari.

His hadiths are transmitted by his son, al-Hasan, as well as Aban b. Taghlib, Hajjaj b. Artat, Qurra b. Khalid, Zakariyya b. Abi Za'ida, Muhammad b. Juhada, Mis'ar b. Kidam, Fudayl b. Marzuq, and others.[18]

Works

  • Exegesis of the Qur'an: Atiyya wrote five volumes of Quranic exegesis.[19] He says, "I learned three whole rounds of Quranic exegeses from Ibn Abbas, and I recited the Qur'an with him 70 times".[20]

Ziyara of Imam al-Husayn (a)

Atiyya is well-known for his accompaniment of Jabir b. Abd Allah al-Ansari in the visit (ziyara) of the first Arba'in of Imam al-Husayn (a). Atiyya says, "together with Jabir, we went to visit the grave of Imam al-Husayn (a). When we arrived in Karbala, Jabir went to Euphrates, performed a ghusl, and then visited the grave of Imam al-Husayn (a) with particular manners".[22]

In the Uprising of al-Mukhtar

Atiyya attended the Uprising of al-Mukhtar. At the command of al-Mukhtar, and under the commandership of Abu Abd Allah al-Jadali, he went to Mecca to save Banu Hashim and Muhammad b. Hanafiyya from Abd Allah b. Zubayr. When they approached Mecca, Abu Abd Allah al-Jadali sent 800 strong forces of his army to the city under the commandership of Atiyya. The group entered Mecca and shouted a loud takbir that was heard by Ibn Zubayr and frightened him such that he fled to Dar al-Nadwa. He allegedly refuged to the curtains of the Ka'ba and said, "I am a refugee to God."

Atiyya says: "We went to Ibn Abbas and Ibn al-Hanafiyya, who were imprisoned in houses together with their companions, and the houses were surrounded by so many pieces of firewood up to the top of their walls that if someone ignited them, they would all be burned. When we saved them, we asked Ibn Abbas and Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya to allow us to get rid of Abd Allah b. Zubayr, but due to the honor of the Ka'ba, they did not allow us to do so".[23]

In the Uprising of Ibn Ash'ath

Atiyya attended the uprising of Abd al-Rahman b. Muhammad al-Kindi against Hajjaj b. Yusuf, and after Ibn Ash'ath's defeat, he fled to Fars. Hajjaj wrote a letter to Muhammad b. Qasim al-Thaqafi to summon Atiyya and ask him to curse Ali (a), and if he refused to do so, then whip him 400 times and shave his head and beard. When he was summoned, he refused to curse Ali (a). Thus, Muhammad b. Qasim whipped him 400 times, and shaved his head and beard.[24].[25]

Demise

When he refused to curse Ali (a) and was whipped, Atiyya moved to Khorasan. When Umar b. Haybara took over the government of Iraq, Atiyya wrote a letter to him, asking for a permission to go back to Kufa, and he agreed. He stayed in Kufa until he died in 111/729.[26] Some have mistakenly said that he died in 127/745.[27]

Children and Progeny

Atiyya had children such as Ali, a companion of Imam al-Sadiq (a),[28] al-Hasan, al-Husayn,[29] and Abd Allah.[30]

Al-Hasan b. Atiyya had a son called al-Husayn whose teknonym was Abu Abd Allah.[31] Al-Husayn was a judge in the period of the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid.[32] Atiyya's progeny is known as al-Awfi.[33]

Notes

  1. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 9, p. 405.
  2. Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 2, p. 189.
  3. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 305.
  4. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 305.
  5. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 305.
  6. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 305.
  7. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 11, p. 640.
  8. Ziriklī, al-Aʿlām, vol. 4, p. 237.
  9. Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, p. 51; Mamaqānī, Tanqīḥ al-maqāl, vol. 2, p. 253; Qummī, Safīnat al-biḥār, vol. 6, p. 296.
  10. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 305.
  11. Maqrizī, Imtāʿ al-asmāʾ, vol. 13, p. 16 (footnote).
  12. Ibn Ḥazm, Jumhurat ansāb al-ʿarab, p. 309.
  13. Mamaqānī, Tanqīḥ al-maqāl, vol. 2, p. 253.
  14. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 13, p. 268; Dhahabī, Tārīkh al-Islām, vol. 7, p. 424.
  15. Dhahabī, Tārīkh al-Islām, vol. 7, p. 424.
  16. Maqrizī, Imtāʿ al-asmāʾ, vol. 13, p. 16.
  17. Dhahabī, Tārīkh al-Islām, vol. 7, p. 424; Ḥaskānī, Shawāhid al-tanzīl, vol. 1, p. 295; Ibn Baṭrīq, ʿUmdat ʿuyūn ṣiḥāḥ al-akhbār, p. 233.
  18. Maqrizī, Imtāʿ al-asmāʾ, vol. 13, p. 16.
  19. Mamaqānī, Tanqīḥ al-maqāl, vol. 2, p. 253.
  20. Mamaqānī, Tanqīḥ al-maqāl, vol. 2, p. 253.
  21. Qummī, Safīnat al-biḥār, vol. 6, p. 296.
  22. Ṭabarī Āmulī, Bishārat al-Muṣṭafā, vol. 2, p. 75; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 98, p. 196.
  23. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 5, p. 75.
  24. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 305.
  25. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh Ṭabarī, vol. 11, p. 641.
  26. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 305.
  27. Dhahabī, Tārīkh al-Islām, vol. 7, p. 424.
  28. 'Āmilī, Istiqṣā' al-i'tibār, vol. 4, p. 403; Nūrī, Mustadrak al-wasāʾil wa musṭanbit al-wasā'il, vol. 8, p. 225.
  29. Ibn Ḥazm, Jumhurat ansāb, vol. 9, p. 405.
  30. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 113.
  31. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 7, p. 239.
  32. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 13, p. 269.
  33. Ibn Ḥazm, Jumhurat ansāb, vol. 9, p. 405.

References

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