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Umm Salama

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This article is about the Prophet Muhammad's (s) wife. For other people named Umm Salama, see Umm Salama (disambiguation).
Umm Salama
Wife of the Prophet (s)
Al-Baqi'-1.jpg
Full Name Hind bt. Abu Umayya b. Mughira al-Makhzumi
Teknonym Umm Salama
Epithet Umm al-Mu'minin
Religious Affiliation Islam
Well-known Relatives Prophet Muhammad (s)(spouse)
Place of Birth Mecca
Places of Residence Mecca, Medina
Death/Martyrdom 62/681-682
Burial Place Baqi' cemetery
Era Early Islam
Activities Migration to Abyssinia and Medina, Participation in battles of Khaybar, Khandaq, Hunayn and ..., Supporting Imam Ali (a) in the Battle of Jamal, and ...
امهات المؤمنین.png
Name Date of Marriage
Khadija (27 BH/595)
Sawda (before Hijra/before 622)
Aisha (1,2, or 4/622, 623, or 625)
Hafsa (3/624)
Zaynab (bt. Khuzayma) (3/624)
Umm Salama (4/625)
Zaynab (bt. Jahsh) (5/626)
Juwayriyya (5 or 6/626 or 627)
Umm Habiba (6 or 7/627 or 628)
Mariya (7/628)
Safiyya (7/628)
Maymuna (7/628)

Ḥind bt. ʾAbū ʾUmayya (Arabic: هند بنت أبو أمیة), known as Umm Salama (ibu dari Salama), was a wife of the Prophet (s) and one of the persons who were called Umm al-Mu'minin. She immigrated to Abyssinia together with Muslims and was the first person who immigrated to Medina.

She loved Imam al-Husayn (a) very much and after his martyrdom, mourned for him.

She accepted Islam in the first years of the Bi'tha and immigrated to Abyssinia with a group of Muslims led by Ja'far b. Abi Talib following the order of the Prophet (s).[1] In 4/625, after her husband died, she married the Prophet (s).[2] Most historians have mentioned that she passed away after the Event of 'Ashura.

Name and Lineage

Her name was Hind, but she was called Umm Salama since she had a son whose name was Salama.

The name of her father was Abu Umayya b. Mughira[3] and the name of her mother was 'Atikah. Some sources have said that her mother was a daughter of 'Abd al-Muttalib,[4] but most historians believe that she was a daughter of 'Amir b. Rabi'a al-Kinani.[5]

There is no information about the date of her birth.

Conversion to Islam

Before marrying the Prophet (s), Umm Salama was the wife of the Prophet's (s) step brother, Abu Salama b. 'Abd al-Asad al-Makhzumi. She became Muslim together with her husband in Mecca.

Immigration to Abyssinia

Umm Salama and her husband joined the group of Muslims who immigrated to Abyssinia. All hadiths related to Quraysh delegates in Abyssinia and their debates with Ja'far b. Abi Talib in the presence of king of Abyssinia are narrated by Umm Salama.

Ibn Hisham narrated the story of entering emigrants to Abyssinia and the kind encounter of the king of Abyssinia with them from Umm Salama.[6]

Immigration to Medina

Following the Prophet's (s) order for immigration of Muslims to Medina, the first person who immigrated was Abu Salama who went to Medina with his son and his wife but Banu Mughira, who were relatives of Umm Salama prevented them from going to Medina. Umm Salama narrated her story of separating from her son and husband that, "I used to cry days and nights for one year and went and stood on the way to Medina and asked about them from anyone coming from Medina. When my relatives saw my distress, they let me travel to Medina and I traveled to Medina after one year."[7]

In Medina

Marriage with the Prophet (s)

After Abu Salama, 'Abd Allah b. 'Abd al-Asad passed away in 4/625-626 due to a wound from the Battle of Uhud, Umm Salama married the Prophet (s). Before, the Prophet (s) asked Umm Salama for marriage, Abu Bakr and then 'Umar did, but she did not accept. Then, the Prophet (s) asked her for marriage and she accepted.[8] Umm Salama had virtues which made Aisha envious and upset.[9]

Participation in Battles and Sariyyas

Umm Salama participated in many battles and Sariyyas such as al-Muraysi', Khaybar, Hudaybiyya, Khandaq, Conquest of Mecca and Hunayn.[10] Later, she went to the battlefield of Uhud every month and sent Salutation upon the martyrs.[11]

Relation with the Ahl al-Bayt (a)

Umm Salama always tried to be with the Ahl al-Bayt (a). According to reports, after the Prophet (s) passed away, Umm Salama was one of the defenders of the Ahl al-Bayt (a), so that she defended Lady Fatima (a) against Abu Bakr regarding the Prophet's (s) inheritance for Lady Fatima (a) and that year she was deprived of it.[12]

Battle of Jamal

After 'Uthman's murder, when Talha and Zubayr went to Mecca and encouraged Aisha to wage war against Ali (a), Aisha too wanted to incite Umm Salama to participate in such a war, but she did not accept it and prohibited Aisha from that.[13]

When she was disappointed from stopping Aisha, informed Imam Ali (a) about the intentions of the Companions of Jamal (Aisha, Talha, and Zubayr) and sent her son 'Umar b. Abi Salama to him. Later, Imam Ali (a) appointed this man as the governor of Bahrain, then the governor of Fars, and in another account, as the governor of Hulwan, Mah, and Masbadhan.[14]

Love for Imam al-Husayn (a)

Her love for the Ahl al-Bayt (a) was to such an extent that she was assigned to take care of Imam al-Husayn (a) in childhood;[15] and after his martyrdom by Yazid, she mourned a lot for Imam al-Husayn (a).[16]

Role in the Event of Karbala

Before traveling to Karbala, Imam al-Husayn (a) trusted the Prophet's (s) standard and weapon as the Trusts of Imamate to her to keep them safe.[17] This shows her special position before Ahl al-Bayt (a). According to some reports, the Prophet (s) had given a little of the soil of Karbala and she kept it in a jar. The Prophet (s) had told her that, "when you saw that this soil turned to blood, my son al-Husayn (a) is martyred. One day, she dreamt the Prophet (s) with a sad face and wearing dusty clothes and he (s) told her, "we are coming from the burial of the martyrs." She just woke up and went to that jar and found it bloody and learned that Husayn (a) was martyred. Then, she began crying and mourning and when neighbors came, she told them the story.[18] This story is known as the Hadith of Qarura.[19]

Opposition against Mu'awiya

After Imam al-Hasan (a) accepted peace with Mu'awiya, Umm Salama advised her nephew and Jabir b. 'Abd Allah al-Ansari to accept allegiance with Mu'awiya in order to keep their lives.[20]

But Jabir would not keep silent and after Mu'awiya issued an order that speakers had to curse Imam Ali (a) on pulpits in mosques, Jabir wrote a letter to Mu'awiya and severely admonished him.[21]

Demise

There is disagreement on the year of her demise, as it has been reported between 59/678-679 to 62/681-682;[22] but it seems that 62/681-682 could be most accurate; since she was alive after the martyrdom of Imam al-Husayn (a).[23] Therefore she was the last wife of the Prophet (s) who passed away.

It has been reported by her son, 'Umar, that she was 84 years old when she passed away.[24] Her grave is located in al-Baqi' cemetery beside the graves of other noble Muslims of the early Islam.[25]

Musnad of Umm Salama

Umm Salama narrated many hadiths from the Prophet (s) which are recorded in hadith references of both Shi'a and Sunni. The Number of her hadiths are 378 which collected in a collection called Musnad of Umm Salama.[26]

Unfortunately, there is no list of her hadiths in Shi'a hadith references. Her hadiths include:

Umm Salama also narrated hadiths from Abu Salama b. 'Abd al-Asad and Lady Fatima (a) and many people have learned hadiths from her and have transmitted them whose names are recorded in hadith references.[30]

Trustworthiness

When Imam al-Husayn (a) went out of Medina towards Mecca, he (a) trusted the Trusts of Imamate to Umm Salama. After Imam al-Sajjad (a) returned from Karbala, Umm Salama gave Imam Ali's (a) books of knowledge, Signs and possessions of Imams (a) trusted to her to Imam al-Sajjad (a) and this is a good proof of her trustworthiness of Umm Salama before Imams (a).[31]

See also

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Notes

  1. Bukhārī, Tārīkh al-ṣaghīr, vol. 1, p. 28.
  2. Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 2, p. 202.
  3. Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 2, p. 201-202.
  4. Maḥallātī, Rayāḥīn al-sharī'a, vol. 4, p. 375.
  5. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 86; Ibn Ḥabīb, Kitāb al-muḥabbar, vol. 1, p. 83.
  6. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 1, p. 334.
  7. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 1, p. 469.
  8. Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 2, p. 203-204.
  9. Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 2, p. 202.
  10. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 2, p. 467.
  11. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 314.
  12. Ṭabarī, Dalāʾil al-imāma, vol. 1, p. 39.
  13. Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 78; Ibn Qutayba, al-Imāma wa al-sīyāsa, vol. 1, p. 57-58; Ibn ʿAbd Rabbih, al-ʿAqd al-farīd, vol. 4, p. 316-317; Ṣadūq, Maʿānī al-akhbār, vol. 1, p. 357.
  14. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 430; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 4, p. 451-452.
  15. Ibn Ḥamza, Thāqib fi al-manāqib, vol. 1, p. 330.
  16. Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 2, p. 22.
  17. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 26, p. 209; Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 235; ʿĀmilī, Ithbāt al-hudāt, vol. 5, p. 216.
  18. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 45, p. 89, 227, 232; vol. 44, p. 225, 231, 236, 239; ʿĀmilī, Ithbāt al-hudāt, vol. 5, p. 192; Ṣadūq, al-Amālī, p. 120.
  19. Muḥammadī Reyshahrī, al-Ṣaḥīḥ min maqtal Sayyid al-Shuhadāʾ wa aṣḥābih, p. 943-948.
  20. Bukhārī, Tārīkh al-ṣaghīr, vol. 1, p. 141; Thaqafī, al-Ghārāt, vol. 1, p. 415; Mufīd, al-Ikhtiṣāṣ, vol. 1, p. 113-116.
  21. Ibn ʿAbd Rabbih, al-ʿAqd al-farīd, vol. 4, p. 366; Khaṭīb Baghdādī, Tārīkh-i Baghdād, vol. 7, p. 401.
  22. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 344; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 4, p. 341; Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb fī maʿrifat al-aṣḥāb, vol. 4, p. 1921; Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 2, p. 207, 21; Ibn Jawzī, Ṣafwat al-ṣafwa, vol. 2, p. 42.
  23. Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol. 20, 143; Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 2, p. 207.
  24. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 96; Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 2, p. 202.
  25. Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 2, p. 209; Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb fī maʿrifat al-aṣḥāb, vol. 4, p. 1921.
  26. Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 2, p. 210; Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal. Musnad-i Aḥmad, vol. 6, p. 289-324.
  27. Quran 33:33
  28. Ḥusaynī Najafī, Kitāb Sulaym b. Qays, vol. 1, p. 59-60; Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal. Musnad-i Aḥmad, vol. 6, p. 292, 296, 298; Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-kabīr, vol. 3, p. 46-49; Ḥākim al-Nayshābūrī, al-Mustadrak ʿala l-ṣaḥīḥayn, vol. 3, p. 146.
  29. Khuṣaybī, al-Hidāya al-kubrā, vol. 1, p. 203-204; Masʿūdī, Ithbāt al-waṣīyya, vol. 1, p. 141; Ibn ʿAbd Rabbih. al-ʿAqd al-farīd, vol. 4, p. 383; Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 182-183.
  30. Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, Tahdhīb al-tahdhīb, vol. 12, p. 456; Ḥākimī, Aʿyān al-nisāʾ, vol. 1, p. 627-628; Ibn ʿAsākir, Kitāb al-arbaʿīn fī manāqib ummahāt al-muʾminīn, vol. 1, p. 71-74, 104.
  31. Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol. 20, p. 143.

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