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Thirty-first supplication of al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya

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This article is an introduction to the Thirty-first supplication of al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya; to read its text see text:Thirty-first supplication of al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya.

The thirty-first supplication of al-Ṣaḥīfa al-Sajjādīyya (Arabic: الدعاء الواحد والثلاثون من الصحيفة السجادية) is a supplication transmitted from Imam al-Sajjad (a), in which he asks God for true repentance. In this supplication, Imam al-Sajjad (a) states the conditions of true repentance, the feelings of a true repenter, and the ways of redemption from sins. According to the themes of the supplication, one's inner transformation is the condition of true repentance, and divine love is the fortification which protects one from sins.

According to Zayn al-'Abidin (a), humans are caught up in sins in this world and in the afterlife. Moreover, the Hell is a natural reflection of one's sins. For this reason, one should always ask God to help him for repentance. Other doctrines of the supplication include the request for intercession and emancipation from ignorance and misguidance.

The book 'Atr-i ma'rifat: gul-wajigani az gulistan-i ma'rifat-i tawba (The scent of knowledge: aphorisms from the garden of knowledge of repentance) by Sayyid Muhammad Diya'abadi is written as an exposition of the thirty-first supplication in Persian. Moreover, the supplication is interpreted in commentaries on al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya in both Persian and Arabic. This supplication is also expounded thoroughly in some Arabic and Persian commentaries.

Doctrines

The main theme of the thirty-first supplication of al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya is the request of repentance from God. The supplication of repentance is characterized as the most brilliant supplication in al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya,[1] in which Imam al-Sajjad (a) states varieties of sins, inner states of the repenter, and the conditions of true repentance.[2] Here are the doctrines in the supplication:

  • God is beyond the description of describers (failure of describers to describe God).
  • The Hell is a natural reflection of the sins.
  • God is the ultimate hope of the hopeful.
  • God never wastes the reward of the virtuous.
  • The servants' fear and dread from God.
  • The human existence is in the hand of God.
  • Confession to one's misdeeds and sins before God.
  • One's inner transformation is the condition of true repentance.
  • One is caught up in sins in this world and in the afterlife.
  • The banishment of the clouds of inner blindness is preliminary to repentance (pleasures of sins preclude repentance).
  • Hope for God's forgiveness is a factor in repentance.
  • The feelings of a true repenter: humility and modesty toward God, tearful eyes, sincere request, and the regret for a lost life.
  • The forgiveness of major sins is in God's hand.
  • God has promised to respond to His servants' prayers.
  • God never hastes to punish His servants for their sins.
  • Ways of redemption from sins: persistence on obedience and worship, avoidance of lapses of sins, taking refuge to God's concealment of flaws, and wiping off the darkness of sins from one's heart.
  • God's love for repenters.
  • Conditions of true repentance: repentance from interiors and exteriors of sins, repentance from past and present lapses, promising God not to return to sins, purifying the heart from rusts of sins, and penitence from one's sins.
  • Asking God for helping one to do what is loved by Him.
  • Divine love as the impenetrable fortification which precludes sins.
  • Prayer for compensating people's forgotten rights.
  • Taking refuge to God from returning to the sins.
  • Asking pardon from God for one's ignorance
  • Repentance for deeds which banish one from divine love.
  • Request for intercession, although one does not deserve it.
  • Request for intercession through God's generosity and magnanimity.
  • Absence of any supporters against divine punishment.
  • The heavens and the Earth witness repentance.
  • Pleading the divine presence for responding to one's prayer.
  • One's emancipation from ignorance and misguidance by Muhammad (s) and the household of Muhammad (s).[3]

Commentaries

The book 'Atr-i ma'rifat: gul-wajigani az gulistan-i ma'rifat-i tawba (The scent of knowledge: aphorisms from the garden of knowledge of repentance) by Sayyid Muhammad Diya'abadi is written as an exposition of the thirty-first supplication in Persian. It was published in 2014 by Publications of Mu'assisa Bunyad-i Khayriyya al-Zahra in Tehran.[4]

In the commentaries of al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya, such as Riyad al-salikin by Sayyid Ali Khan al-Madani,[5], Fi zilal al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya by Muhammad Jawad Mughniya,[6] Riyad al-'arifin by Muhammad b. Muhammad al-Darabi,[7] Afaq al-ruh by Muhammad Husayn Fadl Allah,[8] the thirty-first supplication is explicated. The words used in the supplication is also elucidated in lexical commentaries such as Fayd Kashani's Ta'liqat 'ala l-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya[9] and 'Izz al-Din al-Jaza'iri's Sharh al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya[10]

The thirty-first supplication of al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya is expounded in such commentaries as Diyar-i ashiqan by Husayn Ansarian,[11] Shuhud wa shinakht by Muhammad Hasan Mamduhi Kirmanshahi,[12] Sharh wa tarjumi-yi Sahifi-yi Sajjadiyya by Sayyid Ahmad Fihri,[13] and some other books in Persian.


Notes

  1. Mamdūḥī Kirmanshāhī, Shuhūd wa shinākht, vol. 3, p. 35.
  2. Mamdūḥī Kirmanshāhī, Shuhūd wa shinākht, vol. 3, p. 35.
  3. Anṣārīyān, Diyār-i āshiqān, vol. 7, p. 125-196; Mamdūḥī Kirmanshāhī, Shuhūd wa shinākht, vol. 2, p. 35-75.
  4. Wafāī, Tārīkh-i hadīth-i Shīʿa az āghāz-i sadih chāhārdahum hijrī tā imrūz, p. 232.
  5. Madanī Shīrāzī, Rīyāḍ al-sālikīn, vol. 4, p. 373-479.
  6. Mughnīya, Fī zilāl al-Ṣaḥīfa, p. 383-400.
  7. Dārābī, Rīyāḍ al-ʿārifīn, p. 393-415.
  8. Faḍl Allāh, Āfāq al-rūḥ, vol. 2, p. 123-160.
  9. Fayḍ al-Kāshānī, Taʿlīqāt ʿalā l-Ṣaḥīfa al-Sajjādīyya, p. 67-8.
  10. Jazā'irī, Sharh al-Ṣaḥīfa al-Sajjādīyya, p. 161-9.
  11. Anṣārīyān, Diyār-i āshiqān, vol. 7, p. 115-196.
  12. Mamdūḥī Kirmanshāhī, Shuhūd wa shinākht, vol. 3, p. 29-75.
  13. Fihrī, Sharḥ wa tarjuma-yi Ṣaḥīfa al-Sajjādīyya, vol. 2, p. 535-583.

References

  • Anṣārīyān, Ḥusayn. Dīyār-i Āshiqān: tafsīr-i jāmiʿ al-Ṣaḥīfa al-Sajjādīyya. Tehran: Payām-i Āzādī, 1372 Sh.
  • Dārābī, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad. Rīyāḍ al-ʿārifīn fī sharḥ al-Ṣaḥīfa al-Sajjādīyya. Edited by Ḥusayn Dargāhī. Tehran: Nashr-i Uswa, 1379 Sh.
  • Faḍl Allāh, Sayyid Muḥammad Ḥusayn. Āfāq al-rūḥ. Beirut: Dār al-Mālik, 1420 AH.
  • Fihrī, Sayyid Aḥmad. Sharḥ wa tarjuma-yi Ṣaḥīfa al-Sajjādīyya. Tehran: Nashr-i Uswa, 1388 Sh.
  • Fayḍ al-Kāshānī, Muḥammad b. al-Murtaḍā al-. Taʿlīqāt ʿalā l-Ṣaḥīfa al-Sajjādīyya. Tehran: Muʾassisat al-Buḥūth wa l-Taḥqīqāt al-Thiqāfīyya, 1407 AH.
  • Jazāʾirī, ʿIzz al-Dīn. Sharḥ al-Ṣaḥīfa al-Sajjādīyya. Beirut: Dār al-Taʿāruf li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1402 AH.
  • Madanī Shīrāzī, Sayyid ʿAlīkhān. Rīyāḍ al-sālikīn fī sharḥ al-Ṣaḥīfa Sayyid al-Sājjidīn. Qom: Muʾassisat al-Nashr al-Islāmī, 1435 AH.
  • Mughnīya, Muḥammad Jawād al-. Fī zilāl al-Ṣaḥīfa al-Sajjādīyya. Qom: Dār al-Kitāb al-Islāmī, 1428 AH.
  • Mamdūḥī Kirmanshāhī, Shuhūd wa shinākht; tarjuma wa sharḥ Ṣaḥīfa-yi Sajjādīyya. Qom: Būstān-i Kitāb, 1388 SH.
  • Wafāʾī, Murtaḍā. Tārīkh-i hadīth-i Shīʿa az āghāz-i sadih chāhārdahum hijrī tā imrūz. Qom: Muʾassisa-yi ʿIlmī Farhangī-yi Dār al-Ḥadīth, Sāzmān-i Chāp wa Nashr, 1390 Sh.