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Hashim b. Abd Manaf

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Hashim b. Abd Manaf
Great grandfather of the Prophet (s)
مسجد هاشم در غزه.jpg
Hashim's tomb located beneath the dome of Sayed al-Hashim Mosque in Gaza
Full Name 'Amr b. 'Abd Manaf b. Qusayy b. Kilab
Teknonym Abu Nadla, Abu Zayd, and Abu Asad
Epithet 'Amr al-'Ula
Well-known As Hashim
Religious Affiliation Monotheist
Well-known Relatives The Prophet (s), 'Abd al-Muttalib
Place of Birth Mecca
Burial Place Gaza
Era Before Islam

Hāshim b. ʿAbd Manāf b. Quṣayy b. Kilāb b. Murra (Arabic: هاشم بن عبدمناف بن قُصيّ بن كلاب بن مُرّة), is one of the distinguished men of Quraysh, and the great grandfather of the Prophet (s), and Banu Hashim are his descendants.

After Hilf al-Mutayyabin he gained the two positions of "siqaya" (giving water to the pilgrims [hajis]) and "rifada" (feeding the pilgrims).

Hashim was the founder of the two summer and winter trade caravans of Quraysh. He was the main element of greatness of Quraysh and they were very dependent to him; this was to the extent that after his demise they were afraid that other tribes will defeat them.

Feeding people in the time of famine in Mecca and founding the rule of sharing the benefits of trade with the poor, had made him famous.

Lineage

His original name was 'Amr.[1] Born in Mecca and was the oldest child of 'Abd Manaf.[2] About his kunya there are different opinions: Abu Nadla,[3] Abu Zayd, and Abu Asad.[4]

He became famous and gained dignity after his father.[5] He had a luminous face,[6] and was the greatest man of Quraysh in the lineage and moral excellences.[7] He was noble, bounteous, and hospitable, and his generosity was proverbial.[8]

He had four brothers: 'Abd Shams, Muttalib, Nawfal, and Abu 'Amr; and six sisters. His mother was 'Atika bt. Murra b. Hilal.[9]

Hashim and his brother, 'Abd Shams, were conjoined in the time of birth, and they were separated with a blade, so some said that there will be discord between the children of the two.[10](Umayyads are descendants of 'Abd Shams).

The discord started when Umayya b. 'Abd Shams envied Hashim because of his fame and dignity.[11]

Family tree of the Prophet (s)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Qusay
400 CE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
'Abd al-'Uzza
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
'Abd Manaf
430 CE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
'Abd al-Dar
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Asad
 
 
 
Muttalib
 
 
Hashim
464 CE
 
 
 
Nawfal
 
'Abd Shams
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Khuwaylid
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
'Abd al-Muttalib
497 CE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-'Awwam
 
Khadija (a)
 
Hamza
 
 
'Abd Allah
b. 545 CE
 
 
 
Abu Talib
 
Al-'Abbas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Zubayr
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad (s)
b. 571 CE
 
'Ali (a)
b. 599 CE
 
'Aqil
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fatima (a)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muslim
 
'Abd Allah
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Hasan (a)
b. 625 CE
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Husayn (a)
b. 626 CE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Epithets

One year, there was a famine in Mecca, he went to Syria (or Palestine) and brought a lot of bread on many camels, then he ordered to slaughter the camels and made a broth and he was crumbling the bread into the broth and giving it to people; so he became famous as "Hashim" (meaning the one who crumbles).[12]

He was also known as the maker of the alliance of Quraysh,[13] because he made alliances with the nearby tribes and kingdoms.

He was also told "'Amr al-'Ula'" ('Amr the grand) because of his grand characteristics.[14]

Family

Hashim had several wives and from them he had four sons and five daughters.[15] Names of his sons were: Shayba known as 'Abd al-Muttalib, Asad, Abu Sayfi, and Nadla;[16].[17] and the names of daughters were: al-Shifa', Khalida, Ruqayya, Habiba,[18] and Da'ifa.[19]

The Prophet (s) is from the descendants of 'Abd al-Muttalib; and Fatima, the mother of Imam Ali (a), is the daughter of Asad b. Hashim.

His descendants are only from 'Abd al-Muttalib,[20] although some children of Hashim had children but their offspring didn't continue. For Asad, there is only Fatima bt. Asad, the mother of Imam Ali (a), mentioned.[21]

Positions and Activities

Feeding the Pilgrims

After the demise of 'Abd Manaf, Hashim and his brothers quarreled with the sons of their uncle (Banu 'Abd al-Dar) over the positions of Ka'ba. Each group allied with different branches of Quraysh (see: Hilf al-Mutayyabin). At last, without any battle, the two sides made peace and Hashim gained the positions of "siqaya" (giving water to the pilgrims) and "rifada" (feeding the pilgrims).

Hashim was very careful about his two responsibilities and the ceremony of hajj. Every year near the time of hajj he stood between Quraysh and invited Quraysh to regard the pilgrims and wanted them to feed the pilgrims in the period of hajj. Hashim expend a lot of wealth in the subject and other people of Quraysh paid their share to Hashim according to their budget.[22]

In the period of hajj, he put watering places near Ka'ba and brought water to the pilgrims. He dug two wells in Mecca for people.

From the seventh of Dhu l-Hijja that the pilgrims return from Mina, he fed the pilgrims in Mecca, Mina, Mash'ar al-Haram, and 'Arafat.[23]

He gilt the door of Ka'ba.[24]

Formation of Trade Agreements

Hashim was the first to form the trade caravans of Quraysh in winter to Yemen and/or Abyssinia, and in summer to Syria. Before it, the trade of Quraysh didn't exceed from Mecca, and Mecca was only a market for the non-Arab merchants. He was traveling for trade to Syria and Yemen, he formed the trade of Quraysh[25] and with his encouragement, Quraysh started to trade.

He, in a letter to the ruler of Abyssinia, requested his permission for Quraysh to enter his territory for trade. Also he signed contracts with the tribes in the way of Mecca to Syria, so that the Quraysh caravan could pass their territories safely and in return the caravan of Quraysh would ship their goods for free.[26]

Hashim was the founder of the tradition that every merchant of Quraysh share his benefits with one of the poor of the tribe. With this manner, all of the poor became rich, so among the Arab tribes no tribe was as powerful and respectable as Quraysh.[27]

Hashim was the main element of greatness of Quraysh and they were very dependent to him; this was to the extent that after his demise they were afraid that other tribes will defeat them.[28]

Demise

Hashim, in his last travel among 40 merchants of Quraysh to Syria, when reached Gaza, became ill and demised. After his burial, his companions brought his belongings for his children.[29] Most of the history sources didn't mention his age in the time of demise.

Hashim, made his brother, Muttalib, as his successor; and Banu Hashim and Banu Muttalib were always united.[30]

Notes

  1. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 1, p. 1; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 2, p. 251.
  2. Ibn Athīr, al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 2, p. 16; Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 1, p. 138; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 1, p. 75.
  3. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, p. 64.
  4. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 1, p. 80.
  5. Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 1, p. 242.
  6. Ibn Ḥajar, al-Iṣāba, vol. 3, p. 96.
  7. Bāʿūnī, Jawāhir al-maṭālib, vol. 1, p. 26.
  8. Thaʿālibī, Thimār al-qulūb, p. 609.
  9. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 1, p. 111-112; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 61.
  10. Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 1, p. 242.
  11. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 1, p. 76.
  12. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 1, p. 75; Ibn Ḥabīb, al-Munmiq, p. 219; Ibn al-Jawzī, al-Muntaẓam, vol. 2, p. 210.
  13. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 1, p. 75; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 59; Thaʿālibī, Thimār al-qulūb, p. 115-116.
  14. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 1, p. 76; Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balāgha, vol. 15, p. 210; Ḥalabī, al-Sīra al-Ḥalabīya, vol. 1, p. 7.
  15. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 1, p. 112-113; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 1, p. 79-80.
  16. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 1, p. 113.
  17. Ibn Ḥazm, Jumhurat ansāb al-ʿarab, p. 14.
  18. Ṣāliḥī Damishqī, Subul al-hudā, vol. 1, p. 271.
  19. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 1, p. 107.
  20. Ibn Ḥazm, Jumhurat ansāb al-ʿarab, p. 14.
  21. Ibn Ḥazm, Jumhurat ansāb al-ʿarab, p. 14.
  22. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 1, p. 143; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 60; Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 1, p. 242; Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balāgha, vol. 15, p. 209-211.
  23. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 1, p. 78; Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 1, p. 242; Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balāgha, vol. 15, p. 210-211.
  24. Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balāgha, vol. 15, p. 211.
  25. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 1, p. 75; Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 1, p. 242; Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 1, p. 143.
  26. Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 1, p. 243; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 1, p. 78.
  27. Fakhr al-Rāzī, Mafātīḥ al-ghayb, vol. 32, p. 100; Haqqī, Tafsīr rūḥ al-bayān, vol. 10, p. 519.
  28. Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 1, p. 244.
  29. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 1, p. 146-147; Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balāgha, vol. 15, p. 210; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 1, p. 79.
  30. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 1, p. 79.

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